Forest and Wildlife Conservation
Synopsis : Forests and wildlife are part and parcel of our precious and fragile environment and need protection and conservation There are a couple of Acts which prohibit exploitation of endangered species of animals, birds den plants and yet the poachers are on the prowl and illegal hunting and killing of animals is being indulged in with impunity. Because of fast shrinking forest-over and habitat come times wild animals like hyenas, tigers, wolves and leopards turn man-eaters and attack villages. The large scale and indiscriminate destruction of forest has created a dangerous situation and alarm bells have started ringing. Forests a swill life is very valuable and renewable sours of nature and need to be preserved protected and expanded at all costs. Society forestry be practiced and popularized. Depletion of forests also causes soil-erosion, floods, erratic rain-falls, droughts etc. More and more people, communities, tribal’s, non-government agencies etc. be involved in the work
Protection and conservation of forests and wildlife are essential to maintain the earth’s health and environment. The earth is the only known living planet and it is because of its special environment and ecology which are life-supporting. Forests are part and parcel of our environment. They are one of the most valuable resources and gifts of nature. They play a key role in the maintenance of climate, rain-patterns, water and soil conservation. They are the natural home of many types of animals, birds, reptiles, insects tic. They supply timber, fuel, medicines, wood for paper=pulp and raw materials for many industries. The increasing depletion and destruction of wildlife is a sauce of great concern. On out of every seven persons of the world live in India. India has 16 per cent of the world’s population with only 2.4 per cent of its land area.
India is very rich both in flora and fauna but many plant and animal species are already extinct and many other are on the road to extinction. In spite of various acts and rules-regulations against exploitation of wildlife, the real conservation has still a long way to cover. India is a huge country and one of the major wildlife producer countries of the world and yet there is a skeleton staff to safeguard the interest of wildlife. Poachers are on the prowl even in sanctuaries and protected forest areas. They have become fertile influential people and traders in animal-skins, horns, etc.
There is mindless destruction of forests for timber, firewood and fuel. Every year there is a loss of about 1.3 hectares of forest areas in India because of large and indiscriminate clearing of forests fro cultivation, quarrying and large dams and irrigation projects. Then there is intensive and indiscriminate logging for commercial purposes Abu=y contractors and timber-merchants. Over-grazing has also taken its toll. The result is serious ecological imbalance and environment degradation. There is much pressure on forests and the relation between men and forests has reached the lowest depth.
The destruction and degradation of forests in upper regions like Himalayas causes such other ruins as erosion of top soil, erratic rainfall, and recurring floods. Deforestation is a gate social and national evil and should be checked on priority basis. It results in loss of productivity and environment degradation among much other harm. Encroachment on forests should also be checked and, if possible, banned. Non-government agencies, village communities, tribal’s etc. should be involved in social forestry and regeneration of degraded forest lands. They should be allowed to share the benefits of these schemes in a judicious manner. The forest and wildlife conservation laws shoals be made more stringent and practiced scrupulously. Veerappan’s continued bloody trade in ivory and sandal-wood trade upsets all concerned. Through the Nilgiris, it is now almost impossible to spot a large tusker. The full clown assault on forest and wifely saddens all the Indians and wildlife lover in foreign countries.
Essay No. 02
Dying Out Species
Endangered species are living things whose population is so reduced that they are threatened with extinction. Thousands of species are included in this category. The International Union for the Conservation of nature and Natural Resources published a list of threatened mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and plants. Plants and animals hold medicinal, agricultural, ecological, commercial and aesthetic/recreational value. Endangered species must be protected and saved so that future generations can experience their presence and value. Millions of years before the birth of humans, extinction of living things was linked to geological and cliina-e, the effects of which were translated into major alternation of the environment. Environmental change is still the primary cause of the extinction of animals, but now the changes are greatly accelerated by human’s activity. Clearing land for farms and towns, lumbering, mining, building dams, and draining wetlands all alter the environments so extensively that ecosystems may be completely destroyed. With a burgeoning human population requiring food, shelter, and clothing and constantly demanding more energy-using devices, the temperation to exploit land for human use without regard for
consequences is great. Frequently, several forms of environmental change are responsible for the disappearance of species. For example, as tropical forests are cut down, primates have progressively smaller feeding and living spaces’. They also become more accessible to hunters, who kill animals for food and trap many primates for sale as pets, research animals, and zoo specimens.
Some animal species may move into human communities when their own are destroyed. Extermination of marauding monkeys, roaming tigers, or foraging deer is easy to justify by people whose livelihood is threatened. Pollution is another form of environmental change. Forty species of birds in the United States, including peregrine hawk, bald eagle, pelicans, and roseate terns, lay thin-shelled as a result of ingesting degradation products of and some other chlorination hydrocarbon insecticides that make their way into the food chain. Species of salamanders in New England are dying out because the ponds in which they breed and the moist soil in which they must live are watered by acid rain (water that combines with pollutants in the air to form acid, sulfuric acid, and other corrosive compounds). Industrial waste dumped in the Mediterranean have so depleted the oxygen supply that some species of bacteria that decompose sewage have been wiped out and the nutrient cycles disturbed. Even the ocean environment has been altered by dumping. There are several species of birds and animals that have been exterminated or endangered as a result of humans killing the individuals for food. The Hawaiian state bird has also become extinct. The 22 finds of clams and 30 kinds of fish imperilled in the United States are probably all endangered by varying combinations of naturally changing environments, Pollution and over-harvesting. Whale are also on the endangered list. Whale hunting is often justified as supplying a
source of protein for protein-poor populations. Actually, whales supply only 1% of the protein needs of any countries, Such as Japan, that is actively engaged in whaling. In the Soviet Union , whale meat is used to feed animals that are raised for their Pelts such as sable and mink.
Thus, the wearer of a ram-h-raised Russian sable coat may have indirectly contributed to the ultimate disappearance of the great whales. Many species have been hunted to the point of extinction for their tiff, hides or feat hers. ‘1.11ce include the big cats, alligators, kimonos, quetzel birds, eastern grey kangaroos, egrets, and bids of paradise. Many people and groups have taken measure to stop the killing of endangered species. Whether the species were killed deliberately, or by accident (in a oil pill) these groups are trying to stop the killing.
In conclusion, it can be said that endangered species can be as big as a blue whale or as small as a tiny little ant. The responsibility of saving them is on us.
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Environmental Conservation embodies an EcologicalValue
by Joseph V. Siry
Conservation meets preservation
In 1903, President Roosevelt met John Muir on a three day camping trip in Yosemite National Park. Of it Roosevelt later wrote: "we lay down in the darkening aisles of the great Sequoia grove. The majestic trunks, beautiful in color and in symmetry, rose round us like the pillars of a mightier cathedral than ever was conceived even by the fervor of the Middle Ages." [An Autobiography, 1913].
President Theodore Roosevelt's 1908 speech, "Conservation as a National Duty," Washington, D.C.
The growth of urban population in this 21st century has outpaced the national average rate of population increase. What do these figures actually mean?
"Faces of Rural Poverty," Alabama Farm family in 1938, James Agee.
Outline of the above essay.
+ 2000 words.
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