June Jordan Essay

One of the most widely-published and highly-acclaimed African American writers of her generation, poet, playwright and essayist June Jordan was also known for her fierce commitment to human rights and progressive political agenda. Over a career that produced twenty-seven volumes of poems, essays, libretti, and work for children, Jordan engaged the fundamental struggles of her era: over civil rights, women’s rights, and sexual freedom. A prolific writer across genres, Jordan’s poetry is known for its immediacy and accessibility as well as its interest in identity and the representation of personal, lived experience—her poetry is often deeply autobiographical; Jordan’s work can also be overtly political and often displays a radical, globalized notion of solidarity amongst the world’s marginalized and oppressed. In volumes like Some Changes (1971), Living Room (1985) and Kissing God Goodbye: Poems 1991-1997 (1997), Jordan uses conversational, often vernacular English to address topics ranging from family, bisexuality, political oppression, African American identity and racial inequality, and memory. Regarded as one of the key figures in the mid-century African American social, political and artistic milieu, Jordan also taught at many of the country’s most prestigious universities including Yale, State University of New York-Stony Brook, and the University of California-Berkley.

Born July 9, 1936, in Harlem, New York, Jordan had a difficult childhood and an especially fraught relationship with her father. Her parents were both Jamaican immigrants and, she recalled in Civil Wars: Selected Essays, 1963-80 (1981), "for a long while during childhood I was relatively small, short, and, in some other ways, a target for bully abuse. In fact, my father was the first regular bully in my life." But Jordan also has positive memories of her childhood and it was during her early years that she began to write. Though becoming a poet “did not compute” for her parents, they did send the teen-aged Jordan to prep schools where she was the only black student. Her teachers encouraged her interest in poetry, but did not introduce her to the work of any black poets. After high school Jordan enrolled in Barnard College in New York City. Though she enjoyed some of her classes and admired many of the people she met, she felt fundamentally at odds with the predominately white, male curriculum and left Barnard without graduating.

In 1955, Jordan married Michael Meyer, a white Columbia University student. Interracial marriages faced considerable opposition at the time, and Jordan and her husband divorced after ten and a half years, leaving Jordan to support their son. At about the same time, Jordan's career began to take off. First working in film, Jordan was soon exploring the impact of environment and architecture on the lives of low-income Black families, working with the architect Buckminster Fuller. In 1966 she began teaching at the City College of the City University of New York, and in 1969 she published her first book of poetry, Who Look at Me. Aimed at young readers, the book was originally a project of Langston Hughes. Who Look at Me uses Black English poetry to describe several paintings of black Americans, prints of which are included in the book. Jordan felt strongly about the use of Black English, seeing it as a way to keep black community and culture alive. She encouraged black youngsters to write in that idiom through her writing workshops for black and Puerto Rican children. With Terri Bush, she edited a collection of her young pupils' writings, The Voice of the Children; she also edited the enormously popular and influential Soulscript: Afro-American Poetry (1970; reprinted 2004).

Jordan’s concern for children, especially African-American children, always stood out in her work. Her 1971 novel for young adults, His Own Where, also written in Black English, explores Jordan’s interests in environmental design. Sixteen-year-old Buddy, and his younger girlfriend, Angela, try to create a world of their own in an abandoned house near a cemetery. Jordan explained her feelings about the book to De Veaux: "Buddy acts, he moves. He is the man I believe in, the man who will come to lead his people into a new community." Jordan's other work for young people includes Dry Victories (1972), New Life: New Room (1975), and Kimako's Story (1981), inspired by the young daughter of Jordan's friend, fellow writer Alice Walker.

Although Jordan has not written specifically for young readers since Kimako's Story, she explores her own formative years in Soldier: A Poet's Childhood (2000). Jordan’s searing description of learning to be a "good little soldier" under the severe tutelage of her father who drove her to be strong and smart, to appreciate beauty, but often at the cost of a beating, is told in the guileless voice of a child. Jordan explained her goal for the book in an interview with Elizabeth Farnsworth of NewsHour: "I wanted to honor my father, first of all, and secondly, I wanted people to pay attention to a little girl who is gifted intellectually and creative, and to see that there's a complexity here that we may otherwise not be prepared to acknowledge or even search for, let alone encourage, and to understand that this is an okay story…a story, I think, with a happy outcome." Jordan further commented in an Essence interview: "My father was very intense, passionate and over-the-top. He was my hero and my tyrant.” Booklist critic Stephanie Zvirin observed that Soldier, written “in the flowing language of a prose poem” is "a haunting coming-of-age memoir."

Throughout her long career, Jordan gained considerable renown as both an essayist and political writer, penning a regular column for the Progressive.In Some of Us Did Not Die: New and Selected Essays of June Jordan (2002), published the same year of the author's death from breast cancer, Jordan presents thirty-two previously published essays as well as eight new tracts. The essays examine a wide range of topics, from sexism, racism, and Black English to trips the author made to various places, the decline of the U.S. educational system, and the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, DC, on September 11, 2001. Writing for Lambda Book Report, Samiya A. Bashir called the new essays "fiery," adding that the collection provides "evidence of…[Jordan’s] indomitable spirit." Noting that Jordan writes about homosexuality as well as her own bisexuality, Bashir went on, "In the essay, 'A Couple of Words on Behalf of Sex (Itself),' Jordan moved beyond the ethereal beauty of love in defense of the concrete beauty of sexual experience and desire. In typically humorous style she decried the increasing demonization of sexuality and sexual desire." A Kirkus Reviews contributor wrote, "Some of the stronger pieces here…address the vast complex of injustice that is contemporary American life." An edition of Jordan’s collected poems was also published posthumously. That volume, Directed by Desire: The Collected Poems of June Jordan (2005), includes various poems published from 1969 through 2001, many of which discuss her battle with cancer. Janet St. John, writing in Booklist, declared the book "a must-read for those wanting to learn and be transformed by Jordan's opinions and impressions."

In an obituary for the San Francisco Chronicle, Annie Nakao wrote that the author "left a mountain of literary and political works." Nakao added: "As I discovered soon enough when I picked up a June Jordan work, its contents could shout, caress, enrage. The thing it never did was leave you unengaged." In an article of appreciation in the Los Angeles Times following the author's death, Lynell George explained how the author "spent her life stitching together the personal and political so the seams didn't show." George further stated that throughout her life the author "continued to publish across the map, swinging form to form as the occasion or topic demanded. Through poetry, essays, plays, journalism, even children's literature, she engaged such topics as race, class, sexuality, capitalism, single motherhood and liberation struggles around the globe." However, Jordan perhaps understood her own legacy best. In an interview with Alternative Radio before her death, Jordan was asked about the role of the poet in society. Jordan replied: "The role of the poet, beginning with my own childhood experience, is to deserve the trust of people who know that what you do is work with words." She continued: "Always to be as honest as possible and to be as careful about the trust invested in you as you possibly can. Then the task of a poet of color, a black poet, as a people hated and despised, is to rally the spirit of your folks…I have to get myself together and figure out an angle, a perspective, that is an offering, that other folks can use to pick themselves up, to rally and to continue or, even better, to jump higher, to reach more extensively in solidarity with even more varieties of people to accomplish something. I feel that it's a spirit task."

June Jordan

June Jordan

Born(1936-07-09)July 9, 1936
Harlem, New York, United States
DiedJune 14, 2002(2002-06-14) (aged 65)
Berkeley, California, United States
OccupationWriter
NationalityUnited States
Alma materBarnard College
Period1969–2002
GenreAfrican-American literature, LGBT literature
SubjectCivil rights, Feminism, Bisexual/LGBT rights movement
SpouseMichael Meyer (married 1955, divorced 1965)
ChildrenChristopher David Meyer
Website
www.junejordan.com

June Millicent Jordan (July 9, 1936 – June 14, 2002) was a Caribbean-American poet, essayist, teacher, and activist.[1][2]

Early life[edit]

Jordan was born the only child of Jamaican immigrant parents, Granville Ivanhoe and Mildred Maud Jordan, in Harlem, New York.[3] Her father worked as a postal worker for the USPS and her mother as a part-time nurse.[4] When Jordan was five, the family moved to the Bedford-Stuyvesant area of Brooklyn, New York.[3] While life in the Jordan household was often turbulent, Jordan credits her father with passing on his love of literature, and she began writing her own poetry at the age of seven. Jordan describes the complexities of her early childhood in her 2000 memoir, Soldier: A Poet's Childhood, which she dedicated to her father. In this short memoir she explores her complicated relationship with a man who encouraged her to read broadly and memorize passages of classical texts, but who would also beat her for the slightest misstep and call her "damn black devil child".[5] In her 1986 essay "For My American Family" Jordan explores the many conflicts to be dealt with in the experience of being raised by black immigrant parents whose visions of their offspring's future far exceeded the urban ghettos of the present.[6] In Soldier: A Poet's Childhood, Jordan recalls her father telling her "There was a war on against colored people, I had to become a soldier".[5] While grateful to America for allowing him to escape poverty and seek a better life for his family, her father was conscious of the struggles his daughter would face and encouraged her to fight.[7]

After attending Brooklyn's Midwood High School for a year,[3] Jordan enrolled in Northfield Mount Hermon School, an elite preparatory school in New England.[8] Throughout her education Jordan became "completely immersed in a white universe"[9] by attending predominantly white schools; however, she was also able to construct and develop her identity as a black American and a writer. In 1953, Jordan graduated from high school and enrolled at Barnard College.[1] Jordan later expressed how she felt about Barnard College in her 1981 book Civil Wars, writing: "No one ever presented me with a single Black author, poet, historian, personage, or idea for that matter. Nor was I ever assigned a single woman to study as a thinker, or writer, or poet, or life force. Nothing that I learned, here, lessened my feeling of pain or confusion and bitterness as related to my origins: my street, my family, my friends. Nothing showed me how I might try to alter the political and economic realities underlying our Black condition in white America."[10] Due to this disconnect with the predominantly male, white curriculum, Jordan left Barnard without graduating. June Jordan appeared as a poet and political activist when black female authors were beginning to be heard [11]

Personal life[edit]

At Barnard College, Jordan met Columbia University student Michael Meyer, whom she married in 1955.[1] She subsequently followed her husband to the University of Chicago,[1] where she pursued graduate studies in anthropology. She also enrolled at the university but soon returned to Barnard, where she remained until 1957. In 1958, Jordan gave birth to the couple's only child, Christopher David Meyer.[1] The couple divorced in 1965, leaving Jordan to raise her son alone.[1]

After the Harlem Riots of 1964, Jordan found that she was starting to hate all white people.[1] She wrote,

"...it came to me that this condition, if it lasted, would mean that I had lost the point: not to resemble my enemies, not to dwarf my world, not to lose my willingness and ability to love."

— June Jordan, ISBN 0195156773

[1]

From that time on, Jordan wrote with love.[1] She also self-identified as bisexual in her writing, which she refused to deny, even when it was stigmatized.[1][12]

Career[edit]

Jordan's first published book, Who Look at Me (1969), was a collection of poems for children. It was followed by 27 more books in her lifetime, and one (Some of Us Did Not Die: Collected and New Essays) of which was in press when she died. Two more have been published posthumously: Directed By Desire: The Collected Poems of June Jordan (Copper Canyon Press, 2005), and the 1970 poetry collection SoulScript, edited by Jordan, has been reissued.

She was also an essayist, columnist for The Progressive, novelist, biographer, and librettist for the musical/opera I Was Looking at the Ceiling and Then I Saw the Sky, composed by John Adams and produced by Peter Sellars. When asked about the writing process of I Was Looking at the Ceiling and Then I Saw the Sky Jordan stated: "The composer, John [Adams], said he needed to have the whole libretto before he could begin, so I just sat down last spring and wrote it in six weeks I mean, that's all I did. I didn't do laundry, anything. I put myself into it 100 percent. What I gave to John and Peter [Sellars] is basically what Scribner's has published now."[13]

Jordan's teaching career began in 1967 at the City College of New York. Between 1968 and 1978 she taught at Yale University, Sarah Lawrence College, and Connecticut College. She then became the director of The Poetry Center and was an English professor at SUNY at Stony Brook from 1978 to 1989. From 1989 to 2002 she was a full professor in the departments of English, Women's Studies, and African American Studies at the University of California Berkeley.

Jordan was known as "the Poet of the People",[14] and at Berkeley, she founded the "Poetry for the People" program in 1991. Its aim was to inspire and empower students to use poetry as a means of artistic expression. Reflecting on how she began with the concept of the program, Jordan said: "I did not wake up one morning ablaze with a coherent vision of Poetry for the People! The natural intermingling of my ideas and my observations as an educator, a poet, and the African-American daughter of poorly documented immigrants did not lead me to any limiting ideological perspectives or resolve. Poetry for the People is the arduous and happy outcome of practical, day-by-day, classroom failure and success".[15] Jordan composed three guideline points that embodied the program, which was published with a set of her students' writings in 1995, entitled June Jordan's Poetry for the People: A Revolutionary Blueprint.[15] June Jordan not only was a political activist and a poet, but she wrote children's books as well. [16]

Literary Topics & Impact[edit]

Jordan felt strongly about the writer's use of Black English, and she encouraged young black writers to use that idiom in their writing. She would continue to impact young writers throughout her writing career with her works, Dry Victories (1972), New Life (1975), and Kimako's Story (1981).[17] Although Kimako's Story was her last work written for children, she would go on to describe her own childhood in her memoir Soldier: A Poet's Childhood. Jordan depicted in detail her relationship with her father in the book, and gave as her motivation: "I wanted to honor my father, first of all, and secondly, I wanted people to pay attention to a little girl who is gifted intellectually and creative, and to see that there's a complexity here that we may otherwise not be prepared to acknowledge or even search for, let alone encourage, and to understand that this is an okay story. This is a story, I think, with a happy outcome, you know."[18]

Despite her work for young writers and children, however, Jordan dealt with complex issues in the political arena, engaging topics "like race, class, sexuality, capitalism, single motherhood, and liberation struggles across the globe." [17] Passionate about feminist and Black issues, Jordan "spent her life stitching together the personal and political so the seams didn't show." [17] Her poetry, essays, plays, journalism, and children's literature integrated these issues with her own experience, offering commentary that was both insightful and instructive. When asked about the role of the poet in society in an interview before her death, Jordan replied: "The rold of the poet, beginning with my own childhood experience, is to deserve the trust of people who know that what you do is work with words." [17]

Contributions to Feminist Theory[edit]

"Report from the Bahamas"[edit]

In her 1982 classic personal essay "Report from the Bahamas", Jordan reflects on her travel experiences, various interactions, and encounters while in The Bahamas. Writing in narrative form, she boldly discusses both the possibilities and difficulties of coalition and self-identification on the basis of race, class, and gender identity. Although not widely recognized in its first appearance in 1982, this profound essay has gained much classroom status throughout the United States in Women's and gender studies, sociology, and anthropology. Jordan reveals several issues as well as important terms regarding race, class, and gender identity.

Privilege[edit]

In essentially every one of Jordan's works, including her poems and essays, she repeatedly emphasizes the term or the idea of privilege when discussing issues of race, class, and gender identity. She refuses to privilege oppressors who are similar to or more like certain people than other oppressors might be. There should be no thought of privilege because all oppression and oppressors should be viewed at an equal standpoint.

Concepts of race, class, and gender[edit]

"[In 'Report from the Bahamas'] Jordan describes the challenges of translating languages of gender, sexuality, and blackness across diasporic space, through the story of a brief vacation in the Bahamas."[19] Vacationing in the Bahamas, Jordan finds that the shared oppression indicated by race, class, and gender is not a sufficient basis for solidarity. She notes, "these factors of race and class and gender absolutely collapse...whenever you try to use them as automatic concepts of connection. They may serve well as indicators of commonly felt conflict, but as elements of connection they seem about as reliable as precipitation probability for the day after the night before the day."'

As Jordan reflects on her interactions with a series of black Bahamian women, from the hotel maid "Olive" to the old women street sellers hawking trinkets, she writes, "I notice the fixed relations between these other Black women and myself. They sell and I buy or I don't. They risk not eating. I risk going broke on my first vacation afternoon. We are not particularly women anymore; we are parties to a transaction designed to set us against each other. (41)

Interspersing reflections of her trip with scenes of herself as a teacher advising students, Jordan details how her own expectations are constantly surprised. For instance, she recounts how an Irish woman graduate student with a Bobby Sands bumper sticker provides much needed assistance to a South African student suffering from domestic violence; the incident is at variance with Jordan's own history of being terrorized by Irish teenagers hurling racial epithets.

Jordan's concluding lines thus emphasize the imperative to forge connection actively rather than assuming it on the basis of shared histories: "I am saying that the ultimate connection cannot be the enemy. The ultimate connection must be the need that we find between us...I must make the connection real between me and these strangers everywhere before those other clouds unify this ragged bunch of us, too late."[20]

Common identity vs. individual identity[edit]

Jordan firmly acknowledges and explains that we as human beings possess two very contrasting identities. The first identity is the common identity, which is the one that has been imposed on us[20] by a long history of societal standards, controlling images, pressure, a variety of stereotypes, and stratification. The second is the individual identity that we ourselves have chosen[20] once we are given the chance and feel are ready to expose our true selves.

Death and legacy[edit]

Jordan died of breast cancer at her home in Berkeley, California, aged 65.[1] Shortly before her death, she completed Some of Us Did Not Die, her seventh collection of political essays (and 27th book), which was published posthumously. In it she describes how her early marriage to a white student while at Barnard College immersed her in the racial turmoil of America in the 1950s, and set her on the path of social activism.[21]

The June Jordan School for Equity, or JJSE (formerly known as the Small School for Equity) in San Francisco was named after her in 2004 by the first ninth grade class who selected her through a democratic process of research, debate, and voting.[22] A conference room is also named after her in the University of California, Berkeley's Eshleman Hall, which is used by the Associated Students of the University of California.[citation needed]

Honors and awards[edit]

Jordan received numerous honors and awards, including a 1969-70 Rockefeller grant for creative writing, a Yaddo Fellowship in 1979, a National Endowment for the Arts fellowship in 1982, and the Achievement Award for International Reporting from the National Association of Black Journalists in 1984. She also won the Lila Wallace Reader's Digest Writers Award from 1995 to 1998 as well as the Ground Breakers-Dream Makers Award from The Woman's Foundation in 1994.

She was included in Who's Who in America from 1984 until her death. She received the Chancellor's Distinguished Lectureship from UC Berkeley and the PEN Center USA West Freedom to Write Award (1991).[23]

In 2005, Directed by Desire: Collected Poems, a posthumous collection of her work, had to compete (and won) in the category "Lesbian Poetry" at the Lambda Literary Awards, even though Jordan identified as bisexual. However, BiNet USA led the bisexual community in a multi-year campaign eventually resulting in the addition of a Bisexual category, starting with the 2006 Awards.

Reception[edit]

Author Toni Morrison commented: "In political journalism that cuts like razors in essays that blast the darkness of confusion with relentless light; in poetry that looks as closely into lilac buds as into death's mouth... [Jordan] has comforted, explained, described, wrestled with, taught and made us laugh out loud before we wept...I am talking about a span of forty years of tireless activism coupled with and fueled by flawless art."[24] Poet Adrienne Rich noted: "whatever her theme or mode, June Jordan continually delineates the conditions of survival- of the body, and mind, and the heart".[24]Alice Walker stated: "Jordan makes us think of Akhmatova, of Neruda. She is among the bravest of us, the most outraged. She feels for all of us. She is the universal poet."[24]Thulani Davis wrote: "In a borough that has landmarks for the writers Thomas Wolfe, W. H. Auden, and Henry Miller, to name just three, there ought to be a street in Bed-Stuy called June Jordan Place, and maybe a plaque reading, 'A Poet and Soldier for Humanity Was Born Here.'"[25]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Who Look at Me, Crowell, 1969, OCLC22828
  • Soulscript (editor), Doubleday, 1970, OCLC492067711
  • The Voice of the Children, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970 (co-editor), OCLC109494
  • Some Changes, Dutton, 1971, OCLC133482
  • His Own Where. Feminist Press. 2010. ISBN 978-1-55861-658-5. 
  • Dry Victories, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972, ISBN 978-0-03-086023-2
  • Fannie Lou Hamer, Crowell, 1972, ISBN 978-0-690-28893-3
  • New Days: Poems of Exile and Return, Emerson Hall, 1974, ISBN 978-0-87829-055-0
  • New Life, Crowell, 1975, ISBN 978-0-690-00211-9
  • Things That I Do in the Dark: Selected Poems, 1954–1977, Random House, 1977, ISBN 978-0-394-40937-5
  • Passion, Beacon Press, 1980, ISBN 978-0-8070-3218-3
  • Kimako's Story, Houghton Mifflin, 1981, ISBN 978-0-395-31604-7
  • Civil Wars, Beacon Press, 1981, ISBN 978-0-8070-3232-9; Civil Wars. Simon and Schuster. 1995. ISBN 978-0-684-81404-9. 
  • Living Room: New Poems, Thunder's Mouth Press, 1985, ISBN 978-0-938410-26-3
  • On Call: Political Essays, South End Press, 1985, ISBN 978-0-89608-268-7
  • Lyrical Campaigns: Selected Poems, Virago, 1989, ISBN 978-1-85381-042-8
  • Moving Towards Home, Virago, 1989, ISBN 978-1-85381-043-5
  • Naming Our Destiny, Thunder's Mouth Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0-938410-84-3
  • Technical Difficulties: African-American Notes on the State of the Union, Pantheon Books, 1992, ISBN 978-0-679-40625-9
  • Technical Difficulties: New Political Essays
  • Haruko: Love Poems, High Risk Books, 1994, ISBN 978-1-85242-323-0
  • I Was Looking at the Ceiling and Then I Saw the Sky, Scribner, 1995
  • June Jordan's Poetry for the People: A Revolutionary Blueprint. Taylor & Francis. 1995. ISBN 978-0-415-91168-9. 
  • Kissing God Goodbye, Anchor Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-385-49032-0
  • Affirmative Acts: Political Essays, Anchor Books, 1998, ISBN 9780385492256
  • Soldier: A Poet's Childhood. Basic Civitas Books. 2001. ISBN 978-0-465-03682-0. 
  • Some of Us Did Not Die. Basic Civitas Books. 2003. ISBN 978-0-465-03693-6. 
  • Soulscript: A Collection of Classic African American Poetry. Random House Digital, Inc. 2004. ISBN 978-0-7679-1846-6.  (editor, reprint)
  • Directed by Desire: The Complete Poems of June Jordan (Copper Canyon Press, 2005) (edited by Jan Heller Levi and Sara Miles), ISBN 978-1-55659-228-7

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdefghijkBlack women in America. Hine, Darlene Clark. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 170. ISBN 0195156773. OCLC 57506600. 
  2. ^Keating, AnnLouise (2003-01-03). "Jordan, June". glbtq.com. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  3. ^ abcBlack women in America. Hine, Darlene Clark. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 169. ISBN 0195156773. OCLC 57506600. 
  4. ^Smith, Dinitia (2002-06-18). "June Jordan, 65, Poet and Political Activist". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  5. ^ abJordan, June. Soldier: A Poet's Childhood, New York, NY: Basic Civitas Books. 2000.
  6. ^Jordan, June (2002). Some of Us Did Not Die: New and Selected Essays. New York: Basic/Civitas. pp. 137–142. ISBN 0465036929. 
  7. ^Smith, Dinitia (2002-06-18). "June Jordan, 65, Poet and Political Activist". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  8. ^Black women in America. Hine, Darlene Clark. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005. pp. 169–70. ISBN 0195156773. OCLC 57506600. 
  9. ^Margaret Busby, "Obituary", The Guardian (UK), June 20, 2002.
  10. ^Jordan, June (1981). Civil Wars. New York: Touchstone. p. 100. ISBN 0807032328. 
  11. ^Smith, Dinitia (2002-06-18). "June Jordan, 65, Poet and Political Activist". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  12. ^June Jordan, "On Bisexuality and Cultural Pluralism", in Affirmative Acts (1998), pp. 132, 138.
  13. ^Ortega, Julio. "BOMB Magazine: June Jordan by Josh Kuhn". Bombsite.com. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  14. ^"June Jordan profile" (Press release). Berkeley.edu. 2002-06-17. Retrieved 2014-06-29. 
  15. ^ ab"History". June Jordan's Poetry For The People. 1998-11-19. Archived from the original on 2011-03-19. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  16. ^Jordan, June (2014-02-04). "June Jordan". June Jordan. Retrieved 2018-03-03. 
  17. ^ abcd"June Jordan". The Poetry Foundation. Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 29 October 2017. 
  18. ^"Online NewsHour: Conversation - August 21, 2000". Pbs.org. 2000-08-21. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  19. ^""These words/ they are stones in the water": Introduction to The Feminist Wire Forum on June Jordan". The Feminist Wire. 2016-03-18. Retrieved 2016-12-10. 
  20. ^ abc"Report from the Bahamas, 1982 on JSTOR". p. 14. JSTOR 40338566. 
  21. ^June Jordan biography, biography.com; accessed August 4, 2015.
  22. ^"San Francisco Unified School District, Superintendent's Proposal"(PDF). March 9, 2004. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  23. ^"June Jordan". Csufresno.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  24. ^ abcJunejordan.com
  25. ^Davis, Thulani. "June Jordan, 1936–2002". Village Voice. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 

External links[edit]

  • June Jordan Official Website
  • June Jordan profile at the Poetry Foundation
  • June Jordan poems at the Academy of American Poets
  • June Jordan Papers, 1936-2002.Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
  • Audio collection of June Jordan, 1970-2000.Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
  • Jordan, June, 1936-2002. Videotape collection of June Jordan, 1976-2002.Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
  • Works at Open Library
  • Audio Interview with Jordan
  • PBS New York Writers Link
  • Obituary, The Guardian (UK) by Margaret Busby, June 20, 2002
  • Columbia University Obituary
  • Faith Cheltnam, "Bisexuals Worthy of Celebration During Black History Month: June Jordan", Huffington Post (USA), February 24, 2013

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