Paleosol Analysis Essay

1. Introduction

Marine sedimentology and ichnology have long been used to deduce the variability in paleoenvironmental and paleoecological conditions such as turbidity, salinity, nutrient input, and biomass across heterogeneous environments [1,2,3,4,5,6]. Although terrestrial landscape surfaces are known to be diverse and, like their marine counterparts, vary in response to minor differences in external conditions such as topographic position, sedimentation, and energy inputs, few have studied the lateral variability of ancient terrestrial soil systems [7,8,9,10,11,12,13]. The purpose of this paper is to use the paleopedology and ichnology of continental strata within the Late Pennsylvanian Casselman Formation to document the small-scale (1–200 m) lateral and vertical variability present in some terrestrial landscapes.

Paleosols are useful for solving diverse geological problems. In the past two decades paleosols have been used to aid in stratigraphic studies, sequence stratigraphy, and continental ichnology [7,8,9,10,14,15,16,17,18,19]. The influence of environmental factors such as parent material, climate, organisms, topography, and time on soil formation is well documented in the modern and can be applied to paleosols [19,20,21,22,23]. For example, the depth of calcic or gypsic horizons as well as the clay mineralogy within paleosols has been used to estimate mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation [24,25]. Studies involving preserved soil catenas have been used to deduce the paleotopographic positions of paleosols [26]. Specific depositional settings and associated rates of sedimentation, erosion, and pedogenesis are estimated by examining the soil profile types, stacking patterns, and variations in the thicknesses of soil horizons [8,14,19]. Continental ichnology has been used to determine the soil ecology and biomass of paleosols [12,13,23,27,28]. The volume of sedimentological, stratigraphic, geochemical, and biological data that can be gained from paleosols, therefore, makes them excellent indicators of paleoenvironmental, paleoclimatic, and paleoecological conditions [8,9,10,12,16,29,30].

Ichnofossils are biologically produced structures that result from the movement of an organism through or on a medium [4]. They are the products of the life activities of organisms, which include the search for concealment, food, shelter, and escape from adverse conditions [4]. Unlike body fossils, which are often altered and transported beyond the normal habitat of the organism, ichnofossils are preserved in situ, and therefore represent the behaviors and activities of an organism in direct response to the environment in which they were preserved [4]. Changes in diversity and abundance of ichnofossils within ichnocoenoses (faunal communities) have been used to indicate shifts in terrestrial ecosystems related to changes in soil moisture regimes, nutrient content and soil bulk density [12,13,16,23,29]. Along with paleosols, continental ichnofossils have proven to be invaluable to the reconstruction of terrestrial paleoenvironmental, paleoecological, and paleoclimatic conditions [2,9,12,16,22,23,27,31,32,33].

2. Geologic Setting

The Upper Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian, 302–300.8 Ma) Casselman Formation is the upper member of the Conemaugh Group in southeastern Ohio [34,35,36] (Figure 1). The Casselman Formation was deposited on the distal flank of the Appalachian foreland basin, which was formed in response to a succession of orogenies occurring from the Ordovician to the Permian [35,37,38,39]. Southeastern Ohio lies within the distal portion of the Appalachian basin and all exposed siliciclastic rocks present are deposits from the weathering and erosion of highlands created by overthrusting during the Alleghenian orogeny [37,40]. During the Gzhelian, the Appalachian basin was located between 5° and 15° south of the equator [17,41]. Sedimentation in southeastern Ohio occurred between the Cincinnati Arch to the west and the depo-center of the Appalachian basin to the east [13,42,43].

Figure 1. (a) The location of Athens County within Ohio; (b) A map of Athens County with the location of the study area indicated by a blue dot; (c) A generalized stratigraphic section of the Conemaugh Group; (d) The outcrop of the Casselman Formation used in this study with the approximate location of Section 1 and Section 2 indicated with arrows. Modified from Hembree and Nadon [13].

Figure 1. (a) The location of Athens County within Ohio; (b) A map of Athens County with the location of the study area indicated by a blue dot; (c) A generalized stratigraphic section of the Conemaugh Group; (d) The outcrop of the Casselman Formation used in this study with the approximate location of Section 1 and Section 2 indicated with arrows. Modified from Hembree and Nadon [13].

Global Pennsylvanian deposition was affected by glacio-eustatic sea level fluctuations, the highest frequency of which is attributed to the waxing and waning of Gondwanan ice sheets and the accumulation of ice in the northern hemisphere [44,45,46]. It is estimated that global glacio-eustatic fluctuations of 100–120 m were common in the Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian and data from the mid-continent demonstrates a third-order sea level rise that spans the Middle to Late Pennsylvanian [13,46,47]. The Appalachian basin was affected by fourth-order glacio-eustatic fluctuations during the Late Pennsylvanian; a combination of subsidence and long-term eustatic sea level change produced the marine units in the Conemaugh Group [45]. The instances of marine transgression decrease up-section in the Conemaugh Group. The last major marine unit of the Conemaugh Group, the Ames Limestone, occurs near the center of the group.

The major stratigraphic units of the Lower and Upper Pennsylvanian in southeastern Ohio are the Pottsville, Allegheny, Conemaugh, and the Monongahela Groups [34,36,38,48]. Outcrops of Lower and Upper Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin form a northeast-southwest elliptical belt across southeastern Ohio, eastern Kentucky, West Virginia, western Maryland and southwestern Pennsylvania [49]. Together these units have a combined thickness of 340 m and are composed of shale, mudstone, limestone, coal, and sandstone [36,48,50]. The Conemaugh Group ranges in thickness from 120 m to 270 m and is composed of siltstone, sandstone, claystone and shale; it is bounded by the Upper Freeport Coal of the Allegheny Group and the Pittsburgh Coal of the Monongahela Group [34,36,38].

The Conemaugh Group is composed of two formations, the Glenshaw and the Casselman separated by the Ames Limestone [34]. The Casselman Formation is primarily composed of cyclic sequences of shale, mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, and limestone as well as paleosols containing gilgai structures and carbonate concretions [13,36,40]. These paleosols have previously been interpreted as Vertisols and Alfisols [13]. The lithology of the Casselman Formation is markedly different from the units of the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian which are primarily composed of coal, quartz-rich fluvial sandstone, and kaolinite-rich claystone [34,40]. A change from a seasonally wet tropical paleoclimate of the Early Pennsylvanian to a seasonally dry tropical paleoclimate of the Late Pennsylvanian as well as shifts in deltaic environments has been suggested for the lithologic changes observed within these units [17,35,40,44,47,51].

The gilgai structures and high alkaline content of Late Pennsylvanian paleosols are suggested to be indicators of alternating wet periods and seasonal droughts [40,51,52,53]. It has also been suggested by Merrill [48] that the apparent increase in aridity during the Late Pennsylvanian could be due to changes in deltaic environments. Merrill [48] proposed that during the Middle and Late Pennsylvanian clastic wedges sourced from the rising Appalachian Mountains caused a shift from prodeltaic to transitional and upper delta plain environments; these upstream environments would be better drained and oxidized than the downstream environments and could partially account for the lithologic changes between the Early and Late Pennsylvanian [13,40].

3. Methods

The lowermost 20 m the Casselman Formation was studied along a well-exposed road cut located in Athens County, Ohio (Figure 1d). At this site, three 18 m vertical trenches were excavated along a 220 m transect to expose the Casselman Formation directly above the Ames Limestone. The major lithologic units of the Casselman Formation were measured and described to produce general stratigraphic sections (Figure 2). Paleosols were identified within the three sections and were then described in detail including their color, lithology, texture, grain size, sedimentary structures, mottle size and abundance, as well as the size, abundance and distribution of ichnofossils and nodules. In situ, measurements of ichnofossils in each paleosol were taken; these measurements included length, diameter, and maximum depth. The depth and types of soil horizons were documented, and individual, detailed stratigraphic columns were constructed for each paleosol (Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5).

Figure 2. Generalized stratigraphic sections of the Casselman Formation.

Figure 2. Generalized stratigraphic sections of the Casselman Formation.

Paleosol samples were taken at 20 cm intervals and were used for thin section preparation. A total of 76 thin sections were prepared in a commercial laboratory (Texas Petrographic Services Inc., Houston, TX, USA) mounted on 2.5 × 5.0 cm (n = 47), 4.0 × 7.5 cm (n = 21), and 5.0 × 7.5 cm (n = 7) slides. At least one thin section was produced for each paleosol horizon. The thin sections were studied using a cross polarizing microscope (Motic BA300) to identify soil and plasmic microfabrics, glaebules, pedotubules, peds, lithic fragments, illuviated clays, and small trace fossils including rhizoliths and burrows. Micromorphological description of the thin sections follows the nomenclature of Brewer [54] and Fitzpatrick [55].

The paleosols were classified according to the descriptive system of Mack et al. [56] and were assigned an interpretive classification according to the Soil Survey Staff [57]. Ichnofossils were described according to Bertling et al. [58] and assigned to ichnogenera when possible.

4. Results

The Casselman Formation begins at the top of the Ames Limestone, which varies in exposure laterally across the outcrop. The Ames Limestone is exposed in the base of Section 1; the base of Section 2 consists of a thinly plated, 1.5 m thick, red shale unit that also underlies the Ames Limestone in Section 1 (Figure 2). The Ames Limestone is overlain by a platy gray to purple mudstone that grades vertically into 2.0–2.8 m thick blocky purple and gray claystone units that are interpreted as paleosols (Type A). Two Type A paleosols are present in Section 1 and one is in Section 2. Type A paleosols are overlain by a marine shale that laterally varies from 1.4 m to 5.2 m in thickness between the two sections (Figure 2). This marine shale forms the base of Section 3. In all three sections the shale is overlain by blocky gray claystone interpreted as paleosols (Type C). Type C paleosols vary in thickness from 0.2 m to 1.8 m and occur ten times between the three sections (Figure 2). Vertically, the Type C paleosols transition abruptly into 2.0–3.6 m thick blocky red claystone units also interpreted as paleosols (Type B). Type B paleosols occur seven times between the three sections. In all three sections, the Type B and Type C paleosols vary both vertically and laterally in thickness and in the number of times the units are exposed. A 0.3 m thick non-marine limestone unit caps Section 1 and Section 2 and crops out midway through Section 3 (Figure 2). Approximately 5 m of the upper (9 m) portion of Section 3 is covered by modern vegetation and slump. Above the covered portion of Section 3 is a blocky purple claystone interpreted as a paleosol (Type D) that consists of two separate, stacked paleosol profiles with a combined thickness of 4.2 m (Figure 2).

The shale unit separating the Type A paleosols from the Types B and C paleosols is interpreted as the Gaysport Shale Member of the Gaysport Cyclothem based on its lithology, thickness and stratigraphic position [34]. The thickness of the Gaysport Shale has been noted to range from 1.5 m to 8.3 m within Athens County; because of this the change in the thickness of the shale unit within the study area is not considered abnormal [34]. The limestone unit that caps the Types B and C paleosols in Section 1 and Section 2 and crops out partway through these paleosols in Section 3 is interpreted as the freshwater Duquesne Limestone Unit of the Duquesne Cyclothem [34

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186 Bestland, E.A., Forbes, M.S., Krull, E.S., Retallack, G.J., and Fremd, T., 2008, Stratigraphy, paleopedology and geochemistry of the middle Miocene Mascall Formation (type area, central Oregon, USA). Paleobios 28, 41-61. Bestland et al. 2008 Mascall paleosols

185. Retallack, G.J. and Jahren, A.H. 2008. Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events. Journal of Geology 116,1-20. Retallack and Jahren 2008 coal methane spikes

184. Retallack, G.J., 2008d, Cenozoic cooling and grassland expansion in Oregon and Washington. Paleobios 28, 89-113. Retallack 2008 Oregon paleosol record

183.Retallack, G.J., 2008c. Warm-spike or cool-climate lateritic bauxites at high latitudes? Journal of Geology 116, 558-570. Retallack 2008 high latitutde bauxite

182. Retallack, G.J., 2008b, Rocks, views, soils and plants at the temples of ancient Greece. Antiquity 82, 640-657. Retallack 2008 Greek temples

181. Retallack, G.J., 2008a, Cambrian paleosols and landscapes of South Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 55, 1083-1106. Retallack 2008 Cambrian paleosols

180. Retallack, G.J., Manchester, S.R., and Upchurch, G.R., 2007b, David Dilcher: an appreciation. In Jarzen, D.M., Manchester, S.R., Retallack, G.J., and Jarzen, S.A., eds., Advances in angiosperm paleobotany and paleoclimatic reconstruction – contributions honoring David L. Dilcher and Jack A. Wolfe. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 258, 1-9. Retallack et al. 2007 David Dilcher

179. Retallack, G.J., Greaver, T., and Jahren, A.H., 2007a, Return to Coalsack Bluff and the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. Global and Planetary Change 55, 90-108. Retallack et al. 2007 Coalsack Bluff

178. Retallack, G.J., and Kirby, M.X., 2007, Middle Miocene global change and paleogeography of Panama. Palaios 22, 667-679. REtallack and Kirby 2007 Panama Miocene

177. Bykowski, R., and Retallack, G.J., 2007, Was Triceratops more like a bison, rhino, or hippo? Implications for lifestyle and habitat. In Braman, D.R., ed., Ceratopsian symposium: short papers, abstracts and programs. Royal Tyrell Museum, Drumheller, Alberta, p. 11-16. Bykowski and Retallack 2007 hippo Triceratops

176. Retallack, G.J., 2007e, Coevolution of life and earth. In Earth evolution, edited by D. Stevenson, in Treatise of Geophysics, edited by G. Schubert, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 295-320. Retallack 2007 coevolution

175. Retallack, G.J., 2007d, Paleosols. In Handbook of paleoanthropology, Volume 1. Principles, methods and approaches, edited by W. Henke and I. Tattersall, Springer, Berlin, p. 383-408. Retallack 2007 Kenyan paleosols

174. Retallack, G.J., 2007c, Decay, growth, and burial compaction of Dickinsonia, an iconic Ediacaran fossil. Alcheringa 31, 215-240. Retallack 2007 Dickinsonia

173. Retallack, G.J. 2007b. Soils and global change in the carbon cycle over geological time. In Holland H.D., and Turekian, K.K., Editors, Treatise on geochemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford, v. 5, p.581-605 (revised in color). Retallack 2007 Proserpina principle

172. Retallack, G.J., 2007a, Cenozoic paleoclimate on land in North America. Journal of Geology 115, 271-194. Retallack 2007 Cenozoic climate

171. Retallack, G.J., Greaver, T., Jahren, A.H., Smith, R.M.H., Sheldon, N.D., and Metzger, C.A., 2006, Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land. Geological Society of America Bulletin 118, 1398-1411. Retallack et al. 2006 mid-late Permian extinction

170. Retallack, G.J. and Krull, E.S. 2006. Carbon isotopic evidence for terminal-Permian methane outbursts and their role in extinctions of animals, plants, coral reefs and peat swamps. In Greb, S. and DiMichele, W.A., Editors, Wetlands through time. Special Paper of the Geological Society of America 399, 249-268. Retallack and Krull 2006 Permian methane outbursts

169. Retallack, G.J., Jahren, A.H., Sheldon, N.D., Chakrabarti, R., Metzger, C.A., and Smith, R.M.H., 2005. Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. Antarctic Science 17, 241-258. Retalllack et al. 2005 Permian-Triassic Antarctica

168. Retallack, G.J., 2005c, Permian greenhouse crises, in Lucas, S.G. and Ziegler, K.E., ed., The nonmarine Permian. Bulletin New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science 30, 256-269. Retallack 2005 Permian greenhouse crises

167. Retallack, G.J. 2005b. Earliest Triassic claystone breccias and soil erosion crisis. Journal of Sedimentary Research 75, 663-679. REtallack 2005 Permian-Triassic soil erosion

166. Retallack, G.J., 2005a, Pedogenic carbonate proxies for amount and seasonality of precipitation in paleosols. Geology 33, p. 333-336. Retallack 2005 Bk depth

165. Johnston, C.A., Groffman, P., Breshears, D.D., Cardon, Z.G., Currie, W., Emanuel, W., Gaudinski, J., Jackson, R.,B., Lajtha, Nadelhoffer, K., Nelson, D., Post, W.M., Retallack, G., and Wielopski, L., 2004, Carbon cycling in soil. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 2(10), 522-528. Johnston et al. 2004 carbon cycling

164. Sheldon, N.D. and Retallack, G.J., 2004, Regional paleoprecipitation trends in the Eocene and Oligocene of North America.Journal of Geology 112, 487-494. Sheldon and Retallack 2004, Eocene  Oligocene paleoprecipitation

163. Retallack, G.J., Wynn, J.G., and Fremd, T.J., 2004a. Glacial-interglacial-scale paleoclimatic changes without large ice sheets in the Oligocene of central Oregon. Geology 32, 297-300. Retallack et al 2004 Ologicene Milankovitch

162. Retallack, G.J., Orr, W.N., Prothero, D.R., Duncan, R.A., Kester, P.R., and Ambers, C.P., 2004a. Eocene-Oligocene extinction and paleoclimatic change near Eugene, Oregon. Bulletin Geological Society of America 116, 817-839. Retallack et al. 2004 Eugene geology

161. Retallack, G.J. 2004f. Late Miocene climate and life on land in Oregon within a context of Neogene global change. Palaeogeography Palaeclimatology Palaeoecology 214, 97-123. Retallack 2004 Miocene Unity

160. Retallack, G.J. 2004e, Ecological polarities of Cenozoic fossil soil, plants and animals from central Oregon. Paleobiology 30, 561-588. Retallack 2004 ecological polarities

159. Retallack, G.J. 2004d. Late Oligocene bunch grassland and Early Miocene sod grassland paleosols from central Oregon, U.S.A. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 207, 203-237. Retallack 2004 Oregon grasslands

158. Retallack, G.J. 2004c. End-Cretaceous acid rain as a selective extinction mechanism between birds and dinosaurs. In Feathered dragons: studies on the transition from dinosaurs to birds, edited by P. J. Currie, E.B. Koppelhus. M.A. Shugar and J.L. Wright. Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, p.35-64. Retallack 2004 end-cretaceous acid rain

157. Retallack, G.J., 2004b, Comment – Contrasting Deep-water Records from the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic of South Tibet and British Columbia: Evidence for a Diachronous Mass Extinction, by P.B. Wignall and R. Newton. Palaios 19, 101–102. Retallack 2004 diachronous exinction

156. Retallack, G.J. 2004a. Soils and global change in the carbon cycle over geological time. In Holland H.D., and Turekian, K.K., Editors, Treatise on geochemistry, Pergamon Press, Oxford, v. 5, p.581-605. Retallack 2004 Proserpina Princple

155. Engoren, M. and Retallack, G.J. 2004. Vertebrate extinction across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa: comment and reply. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 116, 1295-1296. Engoren and Retallack 2004 Permian vertebrate extinction

154. Huggett, R., Hesselbo, S., Sheldon, N.D. and Retallack, G.J., 2003, Low oxygen levels in earliest Triassic soils: comment and reply: Geology 31, e20-e21.Huggett et al. 2003 Triassic low oxygen

153. Retallack, G.J., Sheldon, N.D, Cogoini, M. and Elmore, R.D. 2003. Magnetic susceptibility of early Paleozoic and Precambrian paleosols. Palaeogeography Palaeclimatology Palaeoecology 198, 373-380. Retallack et al. 2003 paleosol magnetic suscepitbility

152. Retallack, G.J., Smith, R.M.H., and Ward, P.D., 2003, Vertebrate extinction across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 115, 1133-1152. Retallack et al. 2013 Karoo basin permian-Triassic

151. Sheldon, N.D, Retallack, G.J. and Tanaka, S., 2002, Geochemical climofunctions from North American soils and application to paleosols across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in Oregon. Journal of Geology 110, 687-696. Sheldon et al. 2002 climofunctions

150. Sheldon, N.D. and Retallack, G.J., 2002, Low oxygen levels in earliest Triassic soils. Geology 30, 919-922. Sheldon and Retallack 2002 Triassic soil oxygen

149. Myers, J., Kester, P. and Retallack, G.J. 2002. Paleobotanical record of Eocene-Oligocene climate and vegetational change near Eugene, Oregon. In Field Guide to geologic processes in Cascadia, G. W. Moore (ed.), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Special Paper 36,145-154. Myers et al. 2002 Eugene paleobotany

148. Retallack, G.J., Wynn, J.G., Benefit, B.R. and McCrossin, M.L. 2002 Paleosols and paleoenvironments of the middle Miocene, Maboko Formation, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 42, 659-703. Retallack et al. 2002 Maboko paleosols

147. Retallack G.J., Tanaka, S., and Tate, T., 2002. Late Miocene advent of tall grassland paleosols in central Oregon. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 183, 329-354. Retallack et al. 2002 Rattlesnake paleosols

146. Retallack, G.J. 2002d. Lepidopteris callipteroides, the earliest Triassic seed fern in the Sydney Basin, southeastern Australia. Alcheringa 26, 475-599. REtallack 2002 early Triassic Lepidopteris

145. Retallack, G. J. 2002c. Carbon dioxide and climate over the past 300 million years. In, Understanding climate change: proxies, chronology and ocean-atmosphere interactions, Eds. D.R. Gröcke and M. Kucera (2002), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A. 360, 659-674. Retallack 2002 CO2 and climate

144. Retallack, G. J., 2002b. Triassic-Jurassic atmospheric CO2 spike. Nature 415, 387-388. Retallack 2002 Triassic-Juradssic CO2

143. Retallack, G. J., 2002a. Atmospheric CO2 from fossil plant cuticles. Nature 415, 38. Retallack 2002 Ginkgo CO2 discussion

142. Wynn, J.G. and Retallack, G.J. 2001. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of middle Miocene paleosols bearing Kenyapithecus and Victoriapithecus, Nyakach Formation, southwestern Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 40, 263-288. Wynn and Retallack 2001 Nyakach paleosols

141. Sheldon, N.D. and Retallack, G.J. 2001. Equation for compaction of paleosols due to burial. Geology 29, 247-250. Sheldon and Retallack 2001 paleosol compaction

140. Retallack, G.J., Krull, E.S. and Bockheim, J.G. 2001. New grounds for reassessing palaeoclimate of the Sirius Group, Antarctica. Journal of the Geological Society of London 158, 925-935. Retallack et al. 2001 Antarctic Miocene paleosols

139. Retallack, G.J. 2001c. A 300 million year record of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil plant cuticles. Nature 411, 287-290. Retallack 2001 Ginkgo CO2

138. Retallack, G.J. 2001b. Cenozoic expansion of grasslands and global cooling. Journal of Geology 109(4), 407-426. Retallack 2001 grasslands cooling

137. Retallack, G.J. 2001a. Scoyenia burrows from Ordovician paleosols of the Juniata Formation in Pennsylvania. Palaeontology 44, 209-235. Retallack 2001 Ordovician Scoyenia

136. Retallack, G.J. 2000c. What does the name Retallack mean? Cornwall Family History Society Journal 98, 14-15. Retallack 2000 retallack name

135. Retallack, G.J. 2000b. Ordovician life on land and early Paleozoic global change. In Phanerozoic ecosystems, edited by R.A. Gastaldo and W.A. DiMichele. Paleontological Society Papers 6, 21-45. Retallack 2000 Ordovician life on land

134. Retallack, G.J. 2000a. Depth to pedogenic carbonate horizon as a paleoprecipitation indicator? comment. Geology 28, 572-573. Retallack 2000 Bk comment

133. Krull, E.S. and Retallack, G.J. 2000. δ13C depth profiles from paleosols across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica: evidence for methane release. Geological Society of America Bulletin 112, 1459-1472. Krull and Retallack 2000 Permian-Triassic methane release

132. Krull, E.S., Retallack, G.J., Campbell, H.J. and Lyon, G.L. 2000. δ13Corg chemostratigraphy of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Maitai Group, New Zealand: evidence for high latitude methane release. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 43, 21-32. Krull et al. 2000 Permian-Triassic new Zealand

131. Retallack, G.J. and Krull, E.S. 1999c. Landscape ecological shift at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 46(4), 786-812. Retallack and Krull 1999 Permian-Triassic Antarctica

130. Retallack, G.J. and Krull, E.S., 1999b, Neogene paleosols from the Sirius Group, Dominion Range, Antarctica. U.S. Antarctic Journal 32(5), 10-14. Retallack and Krull 1999 Miocene paleosols Antarctica

129. Retallack, G.J. and Krull, E.S., 1999a, Permian coprolites from Graphite Peak, Antarctica. Antarctic Journal of the United States 32(5), 7-9. Retallack and Krull 1999 Permian coprolites

128. Retallack, G.J. 1999g, Paleosols: traces of past vegetation. In Towards Gondwana alive, edited by J.H. Anderson, Gondwana Alive Society, Pretoria, 42-43. Retallack 1999 Gondwana paleosols

127. Retallack, G.J. 1999f, Mass extinctions: life’s revolutions. In Towards Gondwana alive, edited by J.H. Anderson, Gondwana Alive Society, Pretoria, 40-41.Retallack 1999 Gondwana Alive mass extinctions

126. Retallack, G.J. 1999e, Carboniferous fossil plants and soils of an early tundra ecosystem. Palaios 14, 324-336.Retallack 1999 Carboniferous tundra paleosols

125. Retallack, G.J. 1999d. Paleosols. In Fossil plants and spores: modern techniques, edited by T.P. Jones and N.P. Rowe. The Geological Society, London, p. 214-219. Retallack 1999 paleosols

124. Retallack, G.J., 1999c, A Jurassic prehnite vein intruding the Permian-Triassic boundary at Graphite Peak, Antarctica. U.S. Antarctic Journal 32(5), 5-7. Retallack 1999 Jurassic prehnite Antarctica

123. Retallack, G.J. 1999b, Post-apocalyptic greenhouse paleoclimate revealed by earliest Triassic paleosols in the Sydney Basin, Australia. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 111, 52-70. Retallack 1999 Permian-Triassic greenhouse Sydney Basin

122. Retallack, G.J., 1999a, Permafrost palaeoclimate of Permian palaeosols in the Gerringong volcanics of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 46, 11-22. Retallack 1999 Permian permafrost

121. Isbell, J.I., Askin, R.A., and Retallack, G.J. 1999. Search for evidence of impact at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica and Australia – comment and reply. Geology 27, 859-860.Retallack 1999 Permian-Triassic reply

120. Bestland, E.A., Hammond, P.E., Blackwell, D.L.S., Retallack, G.J. & Stimac, J. 1999. Geologic framework of the Clarno Unit, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, central Oregon. Oregon Geology 61(1), 3-19. Bestland et al 1999 Clarno geology

119. Retallack, G.J., Seyedolali, A., Krull, E.S., Holser, W.T., Ambers, C.A., and Kyte, F.T. 1998, Search for evidence of impact at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Antarctica and Australia. Geology 26, 979-982. Retallack et al. 1998 search for impact

118. Retallack, G.J., Krull, E.S., and Robinson, S.E., 1998, Permian and Triassic paleosols and paleoenvironments of the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. U.S. Antarctic Journal 31(2), 29-33. Retallack et al. 1998 paleosols of Transantarctic Mountains

117. Retallack, G.J. and Hammer, W.R., 1998. Paleoenvironment of the Triassic therapsid Lystrosaurus in the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. U.S. Antarctic Journal 31(2), 33-35. Retallack and Hammer 1998 Lystrosaurus paleoenvironment

116. Retallack, G.J. and Alonso-Zarza, A.M. 1998. Middle Triassic paleosols and paleoclimate of Antarctica. Journal of Sedimentary Research 68(1), 169-184. REtallack and Alonso-Zarze 1998 Middle Triassic Antarctica

115. Retallack, G.J. 1998g, Discussion: Sequence stratigraphic analysis of Early and Middle Triassic alluvial and estuarine facies in the Sydney Basin, Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 45, 653-655. Retallack 1998 sequence stratigraphy discussion

114. Retallack, G.J. 1998f. Grassland ecosystems as a biological force in dusty dry regions. In Dust aerosols, loess soils and global change, edited by A.J. Busacca, Washington State University department of Agriculture and Home Economics Miscellaneous Publication MISC190, 171-174. Retallack 1998 grassland biological force

113. Retallack, G.J. 1998e. Core concepts of paleopedology. In Revisitation of concepts in paleopedology (Transactions of the Second International Symposium on Paleopedology), edited by L.R. Follmer, D.L. Johnson and J.A. Catt, Quaternary International 51/52, 203-212. Retallack 1998 paleopedology

112. Retallack, G.J. 1998e. Adapting soil taxonomy for use with paleosols. In Revisitation of concepts in paleopedology (Transactions of the Second International Symposium on Paleopedology), edited by L.R. Follmer, D.L. Johnson and J.A. Catt, Quaternary International 51/52, 55-57. Retallack 1998 soil taxonomy

111. Retallack, G.J. 1998d. Big tough Ediacarans. GSA Today 8(7), 14-15. Retallack 1998 Ediacarans

110. Retallack, G.J. 1998c. Fossil soils and completeness of the rock and fossil record. In S.K. Donovan and C.R.C. Paul (editors), The adequacy of the fossil record. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 131-162. Retallack 1998 completeness of record

109. Retallack, G.J., 1998b, Paleosols and Devonian forests. Science 279, 147.  Retallack 1998 Devonian forest comment

108. Retallack, G.J., 1998a, Life, love and soil. Nature 391, 12. Retallack 1998 life love soil

107. Retallack, G.J., Robinson, S.E. and Krull, E.S. 1997. Middle Devonian paleosols and vegetation of the Lashly Mountains, Antarctica. U.S. Antarctic Journal 30(5), 62-65. Retallack et al. 1997 paleosols of Lashly Mountains

106. Retallack, G.J., Krull, E.S. and Robinson, S.E. 1997. Permian and Triassic paleosols and paleoenvironments of southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. U.S. Antarctic Journal 30(5), 33-36. Retallack et al. 1997 paleosols of Victoria Land

105. Retallack, G.J. and Holser, W.T. 1997. Timing of Permian-Triassic anoxia. Science 277, 1748. Retallack 1997 Permian-Triassic anoxia

104. Retallack, G.J. 1997g. Compaction of Devonian lycopsid stems from the Beacon Heights Orthoquartzite, southern Victoria Land. U.S. Antarctic Journal 30(5), 42-44. Retallack 1997 Devonian lycopsids Antarctica

103. Retallack, G.J. 1997f. Permian and Triassic driftwood from the Allan Hills, Antarctica. U.S. Antarctic Journal 30(5), 37-39. REtalalck 1997 Antarctic driftwood

102. Retallack, G.J. 1997e. Dinosaurs and dirt. In D.L. Wolberg, E. Stump and G.D. Rosenberg (editors), Dinofest International, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 345-359. Retallack 1997 dinosaurs and dirt

101. Retallack, G.J. 1997d. Neogene expansion of the North American prairie. Palaios, 12, 380-390. Retalalck 1997 North America prairie

100. Retallack, G.J. 1997c. Earliest Triassic origin of Isoetes and quillwort evolutionary radiation. Journal of Paleontology 71, 500-521. Retallack 1997 Triassic Isoetes

99. Retallack, G.J. 1997b. Early forest soils and their role in Devonian global change. Science 276, 583-585. Retallack 1997 Devonian forests

98. Retallack, G.J. 1997a. Palaeosols in the upper Narrabeen Group of New South Wales as evidence of Early Triassic palaeoenvironments without exact modern analogues. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 44, 185-201. Retallack 1997 Triassic paleosols revisited

97. Bestland, E.A., Retallack, G.J. and Swisher, C.C. 1997. Stepwise climate change recorded in Eocene-Oligocene paleosol sequences from central Oregon. Journal of Geology, 105, 153-172. Bestland et al. 1997 Oligocene climate

96. Retallack, G.J., Veevers, J.J., and Morante, R., 1996. Global early Triassic coal gap between Late Permian extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 108, 195-207. Retallack et al. 1996 global coal gap

95. Retallack, G.J., Bestland, E.A. and Fremd, T.J. 1996. Reconstructions of Eocene and Oligocene plants and animals of central Oregon. Oregon Geology 58(3), 51-69. Retallack et al. 1996 Oregon plant and animal reconstructions

94. Retallack, G.J. and Archibald, J.D. 1996. Acid trauma at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary in eastern Montana: comment and reply. GSA Today 6(10), 21. Retallack and Archibald 1996 end-Cretaceous acid rain

93. Retallack, G.J. 1996d. Early Triassic therapsid footprints from the Sydney Basin, Australia. Alcheringa 20, 301-314. Retallack 1996 Early Triassic footprints

92. Retallack, G.J. 1996c. Paleosols: record and engine of past global change. Geotimes 41(6), 25-28. Retallack 1996 engines of global change

91. Retallack, G.J. 1996b. Acid trauma at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in eastern Montana. GSA Today 6(5), 1-5. Retallack 1996 end-Cretaceous acid rain

90. Retallack, G.J., 1996a. An early Triassic fossil flora from Culvida Soak, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 78, 57-66. Retallack 1996 Western Australi Triassic flora

89. Alonso Zarza, A.M. and Retallack, G.J., 1996. Estudio preliminar de paleosuelos triásicos en la Antártida. Implicaciones para las reconstruciones paleoclimáticas. Geogaceta (Comunicaciones IV Congreso geológico de España) 20(2), 259-261. Alonso Zarza and Retallack 1996 Antarctic paleosols

88. Bestland, E.A., Retallack, G.J., Rice, A,E, and Mindszenty, A., 1996. Late Eocene detrital laterites in central Oregon: mass balance geochemistry, depositional setting and landscape evolution. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 108, 285-302. Bestland et al. 1996 Oregon laterite

87. Tate, T.M. and Retallack, G.J., 1995. Thin sections of paleosols. Journal of Sedimentary Research A65, 579-580. Tate and Retallack 1995 thin sections of paleosols

86. Bestland, E.A., Thackray, G.D., and Retallack, G.J., 1995, Cycles of doming and eruption of Kisingiri Volcano, Kenya.Journal of Geology 103, 598-607. Bestland et al. 1995 Kisingiri eruptions

85. Retallack, G.J. and Mindszenty, A., 1995. Well preserved late Precambrian paleosols from northwest Scotland – reply. Journal of Sedimentary Research A65, 445. REtallack and Mindszenty 1995 Scotland paleosol reply

84. Retallack, G.J., Bestland, E.A. and Dugas, D.P., 1995. Miocene paleosols and habitats of Proconsul in Rusinga Island, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 29, 53-91. Retallack et al. 1995 Rusinga Island Miocene

83. Retallack, G.J., 1995d. Paleosols of the Siwalik Group as a 15 Ma record of South Asian paleoclimate. In S. Wadia, R. Korisettar and V.S. Kale (editors), Quaternary environments and geoarchaeology of India: essays in honour of S.N. Rajaguru. Memoir of the Geological Survey of India 32, 36-51. Retallack 1995 Swalik paleosols

82. Retallack, G.J., 1995c. Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens? – reply. Paleobiology 20, 523-544. Retallack 1995 Ediacaran lichens reply

81. Retallack, G.J., 1995b. Pennsylvanian vegetation and soils. In B. Cecil and T. Edgar (editors), Predictive stratigraphic analysis. Bulletin of the U.S. Geological Survey, 2110, 13-19. Retallack 1995 Pennsylvanian paleosols

80. Retallack, G.J., 1995a. Permian-Triassic life crisis on land. Science, 267, 77-80. Retallack 1995 Permian-Triassic crisis on land

79. Bestland, E.A., Retallack, G.J. and Fremd, T. 1995. Geology of the Late Eocene Clarno Unit, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, central Oregon. In Santucci, V.L. and McClelland, L. (eds.), National Park Service Paleontological Research. Technical Report NPS/NRPO/NTR 95/16, 66-72. Bestland et al. 1995 Clarno geology

78. Retallack, G.J. and Mindszenty, A., 1994. Well preserved Late Precambrian paleosols from northwest Scotland. Journal of Sedimentary Research, A64, 264-281. REtallack and Mindszenty 1994 Proterozoic paleosol

77. Retallack, G.J. and Germán-Heins, J., 1994. Evidence from paleosols for the geological antiquity of rain forest. Science, 265, 499-502. Retallack and German-Heins 1994 Pennsylvanian rain forest

76. Bestland, E.A., Retallack, G.J. and Fremd, T.J., 1994. Sequence stratigraphy of the Eocene-Oligocene transition: examples from the non-marine volcanically-influenced John Day Basin. In D.A. Swanson and R.A. Haugerud (editors), Geologic field trips in the Pacific Northwest, 1, A1-A19. Department of Geological Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle. Bestland et al. 1994 John Day field guide

75. Retallack, G.J., 1994c. A pedotype approach to latest Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary paleosols in eastern Montana. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 106, 1377-1397.Retallack 1994 Cretaceous-Tertiary pedotypes

74. Retallack, G.J., 1994b. Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens? Paleobiology, 20, 523-544. Retallack 1994 Ediacaran lichens

73. Retallack, G.J., 1994a. The environmental factor approach to the interpretation of paleosols. In R.Amundson, J. Harden and M. Singer (editors), Factors in soil formation – a fiftieth anniversary perspective. Special Publication of the Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 33, 31-64. Retallack 1994 Bk depth

72. Retallack, G.J., Renne, P.R. and Kimbrough, D.L., 1993. New radiometric ages for Triassic floras of southeast Gondwana. In S.G. Lucas and M. Morales (editors), The nonmarine Triassic. Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 3, 415-418. Retallack et al. 1993 Triassic dating

71. Retallack, G.J. and Krinsley, D.H., 1993. Metamorphic alteration of a Precambrian (2.2Ga) paleosol from South Africa revealed by back-scatter imaging. Precambrian Research, 63, 27-41. Retallack and Krinsley 1993 Waterval Onder paleosol

70. Retallack, G.J., 1993c. Fossils are for everyone. Newsweek, 121, 8. Retallack 1993 Newsweek My Turn

69. Retallack, G.J., 1993b. Late Ordovician paleosols of the Juniata Formation near Potters Mills, Pennsylvania. In S.G. Driese (editor), Paleosols, paleoclim ate and paleoatmospheric CO2: Paleozoic paleosols of Pennsylvania. University of Tennessee, Department of Geological Sciences, Studies in Geology 22, 33-49.Retallack 1993 Potters Mills Ordovician paleosols

68. Retallack, G.J., 1993a. Classification of paleosols: discussion. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 105, 1635-1637. Retallack 1993 paleosol classification

67. Dugas, D.P. and Retallack, G.J., 1993. Middle Miocene fossil grasses from Fort Ternan, Kenya. Journal of Paleontology, 67, 113-128. Dugas and Retalalck 1993 Fort Ternan Miocene grasses

66. Bestland, E.A. and Retallack, G.J., 1993. Volcanically influenced calcareous paleosols from the Kiahera Formation, Rusinga Island, Kenya. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 150, 293-310. Bestland and Retallack 1993 Kiahera Miocene paleosols

65. Radosevich, S.C., Retallack, G.J. and Taieb, M., 1992. A reassessment of the paleoenvironment and preservation of hominid fossils from Hadar, Ethiopia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 87, 15-27. Radosevich et al. 1992 Hadar first family

64. Retallack, G.J., 1992f. What to call early plant formations on land. Palaios, 7, 508-520. Retallack 1992 early plants on land

63. Retallack, G.J., 1992e. Middle Miocene fossil plants from Fort Ternan (Kenya) and evolution of African grasslands. Paleobiology, 18, 383-400. Retallack 1992 Kenyan Miocene grasslands

62. Retallack, G.J. 1992d. Comment on the paleoenvironment of Kenyapithecus at Fort Ternan. Journal of Human Evolution, 23, 363-369. Retallack 1992 Fort Ternan comment

61. Retallack, G.J. 1992c. Paleosols and changes in climate and vegetation across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. In D.R. Prothero and W.A. Berggren (editors), Eocene-Oligocene climatic and biotic evolution, Princeton University Press, 383-398. Retallack 1992 Eocene-Oligocene climate

60. Retallack, G.J., 1992b. How to find a Precambrian paleosol. In, M. Schidlowski, S. Golubic, M.M. Kimberley, D.M. McKirdy and P.A. Trudinger (editors), Early Organic Evolution and Mineral and Energy Resources. Springer, Berlin, 16-30. Retallack 1992 Precambrian paleosols

59. Retallack, G.J., 1992a. Paleozoic paleosols. In, Martini, P. (editor), Weathering, soil and paleosols. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 543-564.Retallack 1992 Paleozoic paleosols

58. Getahun, A., and Retallack, G.J., 1991, Early Oligocene paleoenvironment of a paleosol from the lower part of the John Day Formation near Clarno, Oregon. Oregon Geology, 53, 131-136. Getahun and Retallack 1991 Oligocene paleosol Oregon

57. Retallack, G.J., 1991d. A field guide to mid-Tertiary paleosols and paleoclimatic changes in the high desert of central Oregon – Part 2. Oregon Geology, 53, 75-80. Retallack 1991 John Day field guide 2

56. Retallack, G.J., 1991c. A field guide to mid-Tertiary paleosols and paleoclimatic changes in the high desert of central Oregon – Part 1. Oregon Geology, 53, 51-59. Retallack 1991 John day field guide 1

55. Retallack, G.J., 1991b. The early evolution of plant life of southwestern Australia: comment. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, 73, 77-78. Retallack 1991 Western Australia Triassic plants

54. Retallack, G.J., 1991a. Untangling the effects of burial alteration and ancient soil formation. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 19, 183-206. Retallack 1991 burial alteration paleosols

53. Retallack, G.J. and Wright, V.P., 1990. Micromorphology of lithified paleosols. In, Douglas, L.A. (editor), Soil micromorphology: a basic and applied science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 641-652. Retallack and Wright 1990 paleosol micromorphology

52. Retallack, G.J., 1990. The work of dung beetles and its fossil record. In, Boucot, A.J. (author), Evolutionary paleobiology of behavior and coevolution. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 214-226.Retallack 1990 dung beetles

51. Retallack, G.J., Dugas, D.P. and Bestland, A.E., 1990. Fossil soils and grasses of the earliest East African grasslands. Science, 247, 1325-1328. Retallack et al. 1990 Kenya Miocene soils and grasses

50. Retallack, G.J., 1989. Paleosols and their relevance to Precambrian atmospheric composition: comment. Journal of Geology, 97, 763-764. Retallack 1989 Precambrian paleosol discussion

49. Feakes, C.R. and Retallack, G.J., 1988. Recognition and characterization of fossil soils developed on alluvium: a Late Ordovician example. In Reinhardt, J. and Sigleo, W.R. (editors) Paleosols and weathering through geological time: principles and applications. Special Paper of the Geological Society of America, 216, 35-48.Feakes and Retallack 1988 Ordovician paleosol

48. Retallack, G.J. and McDowell, P., 1988. Report on a Penrose Conference on paleoenvironmental interpretation of paleosols. Geology, 16, 375-376. Retallack and McDowell Penrose Conference report

47. Retallack, G.J. and Dilcher, D.L., 1988. Reconstructions of selected seed ferns. Annals of the Missouri Garden, 75, 1010-1057. Retallack and Dilcher 1988 seed ferns

46. Retallack, G.J., 1988b. Down to earth approaches to vertebrate paleontology. Palaios, 3, 335-344. Retallack 1988 paleosols and vertebrates

45. Retallack, G.J., 1988a. Field recognition of paleosols. In, Reinhardt, J. and Sigleo, W.R. (editors), Paleosols and weathering through geologic time: principles and applications. Special Paper of the Geological Society of America, 216, 1-20.Retallack 1988 field recognition paleosols

44. Retallack, G.J., Leahy, G.D. and Spoon, M.D., 1987. Evidence from paleosols for ecosystem changes across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in eastern Montana. Geology, 15, 1090-1093. Retallack et al. 1987 Cretaceous-Tertiary ecosystem changes

43. Retallack, G.J. and Spoon, M.D., 1987. Ecosystem changes across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in eastern Montana. In, Currie, P.M. and Koster, E.H. (editors), Short Papers of the 4th International Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, 193-198. Retallack and Spoon 1987 Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

42. Retallack, G.J. and Feakes, C.R., 1987. Trace fossil evidence for Late Ordovician animals on land. Science, 235, 61-63. Retallack and Feakes 1987 Ordovician animals on land

41. Retallack, G.J., 1987a. Triassic vegetation and geography of the New Zealand portion of the Gondwana supercontinent. In, Elliot, D.H., Collinson, J.W., McKenzie, G.D. and Haban, S.M. (editors), Gondwana Six; stratigraphy and paleontology. American Geophysical Union, Geophysical Monograph, 41, 29-39. Retallack 1987 New Zealand Triassic vegetation

40. Retallack, G.J. and Leahy, G.D., 1986. Cretaceous-Tertiary dinosaur extinction. Science, 2344, 1161. Retallack and Leahy 1986 Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions

39. Retallack, G.J. and Dilcher, D.L. 1986. Cretaceous angiosperm invasion of North America. Cretaceous Research, 7, 227-252. Retallack and Dilcher 1986 Cretaceous angiosperm invasion

38. Retallack, G.J., 1986d. The fossil record of soils. In, Wright, P.V. (editor), Paleosols: their recognition and interpretation. Blackwells, Oxford, 1-57. Retallack 1986 fossil record of soils

37. Retallack, G.J., 1986c. Reappraisal of a 2200 Ma-old paleosol from near Waterval Onder, South Africa. Precambrian Research, 32, 195-232. Retallack 1986 Paleoproterozoic paleosol

36. Retallack, G.J., 1986b. Editors preface to special issue on Precambrian paleopedology. Precambrian Research, 32, 95-96. Retallack 1986 Precambrian paleosols

35. Retallack, G.J., 1986a. Fossil soils as grounds for interpreting long term controls on ancient rivers. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 56, 1-18. Retallack 1986 paleosols and rivers

34. Leahy, G.D., Spoon, M.D. and Retallack, G.J., 1985. Linking impacts and plant extinctions. Nature, 318, 318. Leahy et al. 1985 impacts and extinctions

33. Retallack, G.J., 1985c. An excursion guide to fossil soils of the mid-Tertiary sequence in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. In Martin, J.E., ed., Fossiliferous Cenozoic deposits of western South Dakota and northwestern Nebraska, Dakoterra, 2 (2), 277-301. Retallack 1985 Badlands field guide

32. Retallack, G.J., 1985b. Triassic fossil plant fragments from shallow marine rocks of the Murihiku Supergroup, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 15, 1-26. Retallack 1985 Murihiku Triassic plants

31. Retallack, G.J., 1985a. Fossil soils as grounds for interpreting the advent of large plants and animals on land. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B309, 105-142. Retallack 1985 Paleozoic paleosols

30. Retallack, G.J., Grandstaff, D. and Kimberley, M., 1984. The promise and problems of Precambrian paleosols, Episodes, 7, 8-12. Retallack et al. 1984 Precambrian paleosols

29. Retallack, G.J., 1984d. Middle Triassic estuarine deposits near Benmore Dam, southern Canterbury and northern Otago, New Zealand: Reply. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 14, 287-288.Retallack 1983 Benmore geology New Zealand

28. Retallack, G.J., 1984c. Origin of the Torlesse terrane and coeval rocks, South Island, New Zealand: Discussion. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 95, 980-982. Retallack 1984 Torlesse comment

27. Retallack, G.J., 1984b. Trace fossils of burrowing beetles and bees in an Oligocene paleosol, Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Journal of Paleontology, 58, 571-592. Retallack 1984 Oligocene dung beetles and sweat bees

26. Retallack, G.J., 1984a. Completeness of the rock and fossil record: some estimates using fossil soils. Paleobiology, 10, 59-78. Retallack 1984 completeness

25. Retallack, G.J., 1983d. Paleopedology comes down to earth. Journal of Geological Education, 31, 390-392. Retallack 1983 paleopedology

24. Retallack, G.J., 1983c. Middle Triassic megafossil algae and land plants from near Benmore Dam, northern Otago, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 13, 129-154. Retallack 1983 Benmore Dam Triassic plants

23. Retallack, G.J., 1983b. Middle Triassic estuarine deposits near Benmore Dam, southern Canterbury and northern Otago, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 13, 107-127. Retallack 1983 Benmore Dam geology

22. Retallack, G.J., 1983a. A paleopedological approach to the interpretation of terrestrial sedimentary rocks: the mid-Tertiary fossil soils of Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 94, 823-840. Retallack 1983 Badlands paleosols

21. Retallack, G.J. and Ryburn, R.J., 1982. Middle Triassic deltaic deposits in Long Gully, near Otematata, north Otago, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 12, 207-227. Retallack and Ryburn 1982 Long Gully geology

20. Retallack, G.J., 1982. Paleopedological perspectives on the development of grasslands during the Tertiary. Third North American Paleontological Convention Proceedings, 2, 417-421. REtallack 1992 Cenozoic grasslands

19. Retallack, G.J. and Dilcher, D.L., 1981c. Early angiosperm reproduction: Prisca reynoldsii gen. et sp. nov. from mid-Cretaceous coastal deposits in Kansas, U.S.A. Palaeontographica, B 179, 103-137. Retallack and Dilcher 1981 Prisca

18. Retallack, G.J. and Dilcher, D.L., 1981b. Arguments for a glossopterid ancestry of angiosperms. Paleobiology, 7, 54-67. Retallack and Dilcher 1981 glossopterid ancestry for angiosperms

17. Retallack, G.J. and Dilcher, D.L., 1981a. A coastal hypothesis for the dispersal and rise to dominance of flowering plants. In K.J. Niklas, Editor, Paleobotany, Paleoecology, and Evolution, v. 1. Praeger, New York, 22-77.Retallack and Dilcher 1981 angiosperm coastal hypothesis

16. Retallack, G.J., 1981e. Fossil soils – indicators of ancient terrestrial environments. In, K.J. Niklas, Editor, Paleobotany, Paleoecology, and Evolution. Praeger, New York, 55-102.Retallack 1981 fossi soil review

15. Retallack, G.J., 1981d. Preliminary observations on fossil soils in the Clarno Formation (Eocene to Early Oligocene), near Clarno, Oregon. Oregon Geology, 43, 147-150. Retallack 1981 Clarno paleosols

14. Retallack, G.J., 1981c. Middle Triassic megafossil plants from Long Gully, near Otematata, north Otago, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 11, 167-200.Retallack 1981 Long Gully Triassic plants New Zealandl

13. Retallack, G.J., 1981b. Two new approaches for reconstructing fossil vegetation: with examples from the Triassic of eastern Australia. In, J. Gray and A.J. Boucot, Editors, Communities of the Past. Hutchinson Ross Company: Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 271-295. Retallack 1981 reconstructing Triassic vegetation

12. Retallack, G.J., 1981a. Comment on “Reinterpretation of the depositional environment of the Yellow-stone ‘fossil forests’” by W.J. Fritz. Geology, 9, 52-53. Retallack 1981 Yellowstone Eocene paleosols

11. Retallack, G.J., 1980b. Late Carboniferous to Middle Triassic megafossil floras from the Sydney Basin. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of New South Wales, 26, 384-430. Retallack 1980 Sydney fossil plants

10. Retallack, G.J., 1980a. Middle Triassic megafossil plants and trace fossils from Tank Gully, Canterbury, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 10, 31-63. Retallack 1980 Tank Gully Triassic plants

9. Retallack, G.J., 1979. Middle Triassic coastal outwash plain deposits in Tank Gully, Canterbury, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 9, 397-414. Retallack 1979 Tank GUlly Triassic geology

8. Retallack, G.J., 1978b. The Nymboida valley – 200 million years ago. Armidale and District Historical Society Journal, 21, 1-4. Retallack 1978 Nymboida geology

7. Retallack, G.J., 1978a. Floral ecostratigraphy in practice. Lethaia, 11, 81-83. Retallack 1978 ecostratigraphy

6. Bourke, D.J., Gould, R.E., Helby, R.J., Morgan, R. and Retallack, G.J., 1977. Floral evidence for a Middle Triassic age of the Gunnee Beds and Gragin conglomerate near Delungra, N.S.W. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 110, 33-40. Bourke et al. 1977 Triassic Delungra flora

5. Retallack, G.J., Gould, R.E. and Runnegar, B., 1977. Isotopic dating of a Middle Triassic megafossil flora from near Nymboida, northeastern New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales, 101, 77-113.Retallack et al. 1977 Cloughers Creek flora

4. Retallack, G.J., 1977c. Reconstructing Triassic vegetation of eastern Australasia: a new approach for the biostratigraphy of Gondwanaland. Alcheringa, 1, 253-283. Retallack 1977 Triassic vegetation

3. Retallack, G.J., 1977b. Triassic palaeosols in the upper Narrabeen Group of New South Wales. Part II: Classification and reconstruction. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 24, 19-35. Retallack 1977 Triassic paleosols 2

2. Retallack, G.J., 1977a. Triassic palaeosols in the upper Narrabeen Group of New South Wales. Part I: Features of the palaeosols. Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, 23, 383-399. Retallack 1977 Triassic paleosols 1

1. Retallack, G.J., 1975. The life and times of a Triassic lycopod. Alcheringa, 1, 3-29. Retallack 1995 Pleuromeia

 

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