Female foeticide is the termination of a female foetus from the womb of mother through abortion in illegal manner for some assumed cultural reasons.
Essay on Female Foeticide
Following are some essay on female foeticide in India. All the Female Foeticide essay are very simple and easy, written for students use. Female foeticide is very important topic which students may be assigned to write complete essay or only paragraph during their exam or essay writing competition. Students can select any of the essays on Female Foeticide according to their need and requirement.
Female Foeticide Essay 1 (100 words)
Female foeticide is in practice in India from the time of advent of technological advancements in medical field like prenatal sex determination in the 1990s. However, earlier to this, female childs were killing after their birth in many regions of the country. In the Indian society, female childs are considered as the social and economic burden to their parents so they understand that it is better to kill them before birth. No one understands its negative aspect in the future. The female sex ratio in comparison to the males has been reduced to a great extent (8 males per one female). It is not easy to compensate the sex ratio even if we stop female foeticide completely in the next few years.
Female Foeticide Essay 2 (150 words)
Female foeticide is the removal of healthy female foetus after 18 weeks of gestation from the mother uterus just because the child is female. Parents and society consider a girl child burden over them and understand that girls are consumers whereas boys are producers. There are lots of myths in the Indian society about girls from the ancient time that girls always take and boys always give. This wrong practice of female foeticide is coming from years because of many reasons. However, can be removed by regular practice of following points:
- There should be strong ethical code for the doctors.
- Everyone should be in the favor of removal of sex discrimination and away from the traditional teachings against girls in the society.
- Women should be empowered to deal with discriminatory practices in the society like dowry system, etc.
- There should be immediate complaint registration system for all women.
- Female foeticide awareness program should be run to aware common public.
- Assessment of the status of women (regarding female mortality, sex ratio, literacy and economic participation) should be done on regular interval of time.
Female Foeticide Essay 3 (200 words)
Since the ancient time, women in the Indian society are considered as a curse for their family and society. Due to these reasons, female foeticide has been in practice for many years in the India from the time of technological advancement. According to the census of 2001, female and male ratio has been 927 to 1000. Few years ago, almost all the couple was used of the sex determination tests to know the sex of the infant before birth. And abortion was sure in case of girl baby.
Development of ultrasound technique was the origin of sex determination tests in the early 1990’s. People in the Indian society are used to of giving birth to the child continuously until they get boy baby by killing all the girl baby earlier to the boy. In order to control the population and stop female foeticide, Government of India made various rules and regulations against female foeticide and trend of abortions after sex determination tests. Killing of a baby girl through abortion has been an offence all through the country. Doctors found performing sex determination tests and abortions especially for killing girl baby would be guilty and lose their license. Awareness about the importance of girl child in the society is major weapon to get relief from the female foeticide.
Female Foeticide Essay 4 (250 words)
What is Female Foeticide
Female foeticide is the process of abortion to terminate female foetus from the womb of mother before birth after the sex determination tests like ultrasound scan. Female foeticide and even any sex determination test is illegal in India. It is the shame for the parents who are desperate for a baby boy as well as doctors carrying out abortions especially for this.
Causes of Female Foeticide
Female foeticide have been in practice for centuries especially for the families who prefer only male child. Various religious, social, financial and emotional reasons are also there. Time has been changed now to a great extent however, various reasons and beliefs are continuing in some families. Some key reasons of female foeticide are:
- Generally parents avoid girl baby because they have to pay a big amount (more than their strength) as a dowry at daughter’s marriage.
- There is a believe that girls are always consumer and boys are producer. Parents understand that son earn money for them whole life and care their parents however girls will get married a day and go away.
- There is a myth that son will carry name of family in future whereas girl have to carry husband’s family.
- Parents and grandparents understand their honor while having boy baby in the family whereas shame having daughter.
- There is a pressure on new bride of the family to give birth to a male child thus she is forced to go for sex determination and abortion if girl baby.
- Illiteracy, insecurity and poverty of people in society are main reasons of girl baby burden.
- Technological advancement in the science and utilities has made this very easy for parents.
Female Foeticide Essay 5 (300 words)
Female foeticide is the termination of a girl foetus in the womb before its complete term just because it is female. According to the statistics, it is found that male to female sex ratio is 102.4 males/100 females in 1961, 104.1 males/100 females in 1981, 107.8 males/100 females in 2001, and 108.8 males/100 females in 2011. It shows that number of male per female is increasing regularly. Female foeticide was almost started in the early 1990s on the coming of affordable ultrasound technology in India.
The advancement of ultrasound technology in India came in 1979 however its spread was slow. But became widespread in 2000s. It is estimated that since 1990s, more than 10 million of female foetuses have been aborted because of being girl. We can see that female foeticide has been practiced through the history and cultural background. Earlier, people believed that male babies are superior as they would provide manual labor as well as lead the family lineage in future. Son is considered as family asset however a daughter is a liability.
Daughters are given less respect and priority than sons in Indian society from the ancient time. They did not have same access like boys in the areas of education, healthcare, nutrition, play, etc. In order to combat with sex-selective abortions, there should be high level awareness among common public. Satyamev Jayate, a most famous programme run by the Aamir Khan on TV has done great to raise awareness among common public through its first episode of “Daughters Are Precious”. Cultural interventions regarding this issue are need to be addressed through awareness programmes. Recent awareness programmes like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, or Save girls campaign, etc have been made regarding girl’s rights.
Female Foeticide Essay 6 (400 words)
Female foeticide is the elimination of girl child after sex determination test from the womb. Girl child is killed before birth just to fulfill the wishes of old members in the family of getting boy baby first. All the process gone under familial pressure especially by husband or in-laws. General reason behind abortion becomes unplanned pregnancy however female foeticide becomes planned by the families. It is the age old practice to kill ever unwanted girl child in the Indian society.
People believe that boys are the key to continue their family lineage however they do not understand the most simple thing that girls are reasons to give birth to new entity in the world not boys.
Reasons of Female Foeticide
Female foeticide is an unethical act has been practiced from old age due to some cultural norms and socio-economic policies. Following are the reasons of female foeticide in the Indian society:
- The important reason of female foeticide is the preference of male child over girl child because son is the main source of income however girls are consumer. There is a misconception in the society that boys are always look after their parents however girls are to left them away.
- Old custom of dowry system in India has put a big challenge before parents which is the main reason to avoid girl child by the parents.
- Low status of women in the male dominated Indian society.
- Parents consider that boys would carry their name ahead in the society however girls are only to handle households.
- Legalization of abortion in India is another big reason for the illegal sex determination and termination of girl baby.
- Technological advancement in the health sector has given fire to the female foeticide.
Effective Measures to Control:
As we all know that female foeticide is a crime and social disaster for the future of women. We should notice the reasons for female foeticide in the Indian society and try to solve one by one on regular basis. Female infanticide or female feticide is mainly because of the sex determination. There should be legal stoppage to get control over it. All the laws should be strictly followed by the every citizens of India. And one should be surely punished if found guilty for this cruel practice. Permanent termination of license should be done if found practicing this. Marketing of medical equipments especially for illegal sex determination and abortion should be stopped. Parents should be penalized who want to kill their girl baby. Campaigns and seminars should be regularly organized to aware young couples. Women should be empowered so that they can be more attentive to their rights.
Varieties of essay on female foeticide given above are written for the range of students studying in classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, etc. Students of any class can select and use any female foeticide essay according to their need and requirement. Apart from this, you can also get other related essays and related information on various topics such as:
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There have been an increasing number of abortion cases throughout the world. This scenario has been fuelled by among other factors social and economic factors. Abortion is the termination of pregnancy. It is the removal of the foetus before it is viable. It is usually done before the foetus gets to 25 weeks old. It is either spontaneous or induced abortion. Abortion refers to the induced type (Malcolm 1977 page 12).
In developed countries, abortion is legal whereas most developing countries do not encourage and permit abortion. This brings about the differences in safe and unsafe abortions. Abortion accounts for over 70,000 maternal deaths worldwide.
Abortion has a long history. In the past, it was done using crude tools such as sharpened tools, physical trauma and other traditional methods. With advancement in the field of medicine, contemporary methods are now used and involve the use of medication and surgical procedures (Nada 1998 page 61).
Each country in the world has different legality, cultural and religious statuses and prevalence of abortion. The ethical principles towards abortion and removal of pregnancies also vary. Countries such as the United States of America and Britain have heated politics surrounding the issue of abortion in pro-life and pro-choice campaigns (Ted 1995 page 66). These are based on the argument that for one group, it should be legalized and for the other, abortion should not. Most governments in the developed countries have legalized abortion. Many developing and underdeveloped countries have not legalized abortion and have no control over what is done by the medical personnel.
Abortion and childbirth complications have been the leading causes of maternal deaths the world over. With the advent of the 21st century, maternal deaths have declined. This has been attributed to education on family planning as well as the use of contraceptives.
A third of pregnancies occurring in the world today are unintended. A fifth of these pregnancies end up in induced abortion. Induced abortion is the forceful removal of the foetus from the womb of the mother. The gestation age of the foetus is the determining factor of what procedures could be used to conduct the abortion. The procedure is also limited by the legality of abortion in that country, doctor patient preference and the regional availability of such services.
Induced abortion is either therapeutic or elective. Therapeutic abortion is done by medical personnel in an effort to save the lives of patients. Patients suffering from such things as illnesses, multiple pregnancies and complications could have this procedure done on them to avoid having complications at childbirth that may lead to loss of life (World health organisation 1979 page 16). Elective abortion is done at the request of the woman. This is usually done for non-medical reasons.
It is commonly referred to as miscarriages. They are unintentional. They usually occur before the 20th and 24th week. Many pregnancies are usually lost before doctors are aware of the presence of an embryo in the uterus. Spontaneous abortion is caused by chromosomal abnormalities, vascular diseases, diabetes, infections, uterus abnormalities and trauma among others (Isabel 1992 page 123). The most frequent causes of spontaneous abortion are age and a history of spontaneous abortions. Accidents and trauma have also been linked with the high rates of miscarriages among women.
Causes of abortion
Abortion is caused by a myriad of factors among them social, religious and economic factors.
The society’s desire for convenience has been a factor influencing the rates of abortion. Children and pregnancy are seen as a hindrance to a lot of fun and pleasure. One would easily remove the pregnancy in pursuit of this pleasure. The society accepts this circumstance and even encourages it by allowing governments to legalize abortion.
The lack for respect for life is a religious factor towards promoting abortion. People no longer appreciate new life forms. One would not think twice before doing an abortion. Raging debates have come up suggesting that a foetus is not a life form until it is born. Such debates could easily change people’s mindsets to disregard life.
Economic issues including poverty and insufficient funding have promoted abortion. Many young mothers have opted to do an abortion citing the inability to take care of the child once it is born. Usually such young girls do not have an income to support themselves leave the unborn child.
Stigma has contributed a lot in ensuring that abortion becomes a common thing. Girls who get pregnant while still very young get criticism especially in the developing countries. In most cultures, such a thing was unheard of. It was unheard of for one to get a child outside marriage. If one would have such a child, she would be excommunicated. Developing countries have not fully come out of this and girls who get pregnant whilst young are looked upon as ill-mannered individuals.
Rape has been a big reason why people abort their children. When rape has occurred, and one does not intend to keep the pregnancy, she would choose not to keep the baby. The experience of being raped is too big a burden that the evidence of such an ordeal in the form of a child would not be acceptable. Many girls would quickly abort to rid themselves of this psychological trauma.
Young girls have a better chance at furthering their education once they get rid of the child. In African countries for instance, a young girl getting pregnant meant that she would have to be married off immediately. This would ruin her chances of ever getting formal education again. Getting rid of the baby provides an easier way out in the quest for education and a brighter future.
Methods used in abortion
There are two main methods used during abortions i.e. use of the abortion pill and surgical removal.
The abortion pill is used for pregnancies up to nine weeks old. A combination of two drugs is taken. They are taken within 48 hours. The effect of the drugs is that the womb contracts and sheds its lining. The process is painful. This pain is experienced on the lower abdomen. It may cause diarrhea and vomiting.
Surgical removal can be done when the foetus is at 13 to 14 weeks. A sterile tube is inserted through the cervix and into the uterus. Suction is done pulling out all the materials in the uterus. The woman may leave the hospital the same day after the procedure has been done. At 14 and 15 weeks, surgical dilation is done using forceps to remove the unwanted foetus.
Complications of abortion
The most common is bleeding. Bleeding occurs normally for a few weeks. It decreases as one nears weeks 5 and 6. In cases of excessive bleeding, there are chances that the uterus may not have been emptied completely.
Pelvic inflammatory disease. This disease affects the vaginal area. The vagina produces an unpleasant vaginal discharge. The body temperature of the individual rises, and she experiences severe abdominal pains. Inflammation may happen in the womb due to emptying problems (Shirleen 2003 page 40). It may be caused because the womb had not been completely emptied. This would require that a new evacuation be done for the woman.
Pain is a normal problem for the abortion process. It is often relieved by using painkillers. In instances where there is excessive pain, one should consult the doctor to have her uterus rechecked.
The uterus may be punctured especially during surgical termination of pregnancy. The tools used may create a hole in the uterus causing complications. Such a patient is kept in the hospital for observation and check up (Bodo 1998 page 159).
Abortion gives a chance to young women especially those below the age of 21 years to pursue their education. A young girl caught in a situation where she has to carry the child to term will mean that she cannot do anything else. She would have to stop learning at some point to address the needs of the child. Most likely, she would have to stop schooling all together to take care of the child. By getting rid of the foetus, she is able to continue pursuing her educational needs.
Abortion has been of help to women with health issues. Women with diseases such as heart disease, hypertension and sickle cell anemia have been able to avoid serious medical complications that arise from childbirth through abortions. Such complications could easily lead to loss of life. Usually a doctor may prescribe such a procedure when he realizes that the life of the mother is in danger.
Abortion gives women identity. In the chauvinistic societies, women have no power at all over their reproductive sense. The inculcation of abortion into laws and codes of ethics has helped the women by giving them power over their sexuality.
Abortion has been used to control family size. Young motherhood is easily avoided through abortion. A woman may choose to have an abortion to prevent her from becoming a mother at a very tender age.
Parents have used abortion as a way to reduce the number of children that they may get. Parents have used this to trim the numbers of children. They would discuss whether they wanted the baby or not and would remove it in case they do not want it. This helps regulate the number of children and aids in family planning.
Rape victims have found solace in the fact that they could easily remove such children that would arise from such action. Rape victims would not want to keep the baby because of psychological trauma that they would associate this child to. Removal of the child would remain the best option to end this.
Abortion indicates brutality to the unborn child. This is because abortion is killing. It does not give the new foetus a chance to survive. It is hinged on religion, which condemns the act saying that all are equal before the almighty. The spiritual books go against the very idea of abortion.
Abortion encourages infidelity by women. Women would engage in sexual acts outside the marriage context with the view that they would remove such fetuses if they happened to implant themselves in their uterus. Once a woman gets pregnant, she would easily remove the pregnancy and continue with her life.
Abortion has the potential of lessens chances of a woman getting a child later in life. Abortion interferes with the uterine wall. At other instances, it may lead to total damage of the uterus. This would result in bareness hence a woman would not get a child when she needs it later in her life. Such actions may also cause hormonal imbalances that could be attributed to the barren nature of the women later in their lives.
Abortion promotes irresponsible behavior. This is because it gives women and men alike the freedom to commit careless sexual activities. This is because they know that they could easily get rid of the pregnancy if they so wish to. This freedom makes them care less about their sexuality.
Concurrent abortions may lead to medical complications. Some of these complications include uterine infections, recurrent miscarriages and sepsis among others. Consistent use of such methods causes the hormones to change. This means that the hormones are tuned to a program where they cannot sustain a full pregnancy to term. The body gets used to rejecting any pregnancy hence the case of consistent miscarriages may pop up.
Abortion may end up causing psychological impairments. Examples of this include depression and guilt. Some women may feel depressed after losing their baby. This could be the case especially, if the child was their first and the abortion was done as a medical thing that they had no control over. Continuous miscarriages may cause such individuals stress and eventual depression. This would ultimately affect the biology of the mother affecting the subsequent pregnancies. This is because the brain would have been tuned to reject any pregnancies due to such depression.
Alternatives to abortion
Churches, nongovernmental organisations and the government run campaigns against abortion. In such campaigns, they ask mothers to look for other options other than abortion. Some of these options include adoption as well as being provided with the necessary help to enable them carry the pregnancy to term.
Adoption is a widely used practice in many countries. It involves the transfer of ownership of a child to other parents who would love to take care of it. The child is usually given to adopting parents because the mother could not afford to raise him or would love to pursue other things. Adoption is an option that comes in handy because the mother is relieved of all duties about the child as it is taken up by a different family. The mother is assured that the child would be safe with the adopting parents. The mother can then go through with her plans without the child getting in the way.
Providing support to such mothers is another option that has been explored. Nongovernmental organisations and church groups have come together to pull resources to support such young mothers through their pregnancy. They have also been of importance in supporting them as they take care of the child. They support them with such things as financial resources and psychological counseling.
Abortion is a social, medical and a religious issue. It is entrenched into the legal laws of every country in the world in one way or another. It has a place in the lives of individuals directly or indirectly. Ethical values arise out of such deeds as abortion that determines the direction that one chooses. Other mechanisms that control abortion include the legal and religious aspects of society.
Providing the necessary support in the form of financial aid and psychological support to mothers contemplating abortion could serve as the best way to curb such deaths resulting from abortion.
There are advantages and disadvantages of abortion of almost equal measure. Abortion presents a double-edged sword in its advantages and disadvantages to individuals and society. It should be after careful consideration that abortion should be done (Patricia 1992 page 93).
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