Fr Bibliography

LaTeX supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the environment and the BibTeX system.

Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible.


Standard bibliography commands in LaTeX have a similar syntax to that of lists and items.

\begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{latexcompanion} Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin. \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion}. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993.   \bibitem{einstein} Albert Einstein. \textit{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. (German) [\textit{On the electrodynamics of moving bodies}]. Annalen der Physik, 322(10):891–921, 1905.   \bibitem{knuthwebsite} Knuth: Computers and Typesetting, \\\texttt{\~{}uno/abcde.html}\end{thebibliography}

The environment produces a list of references; such list will be titled "References" in a article document class, and "Bibliography" in book and report document classes. A parameter inside braces, in the example, indicates the number of entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99.

To create a bibliography entry the command is used. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and so on is entered.

ShareLaTeX provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link

  Open an example in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Embedded system

The example presented in the introduction only contains list of references, the next example shows how to cite the entries of that list within the document.

\begin{document}   \section{First section}   This document is an example of \texttt{thebibliography} environment using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{latexcompanion} Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin. \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion}. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993.   \bibitem{einstein} Albert Einstein. \textit{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. (German) [\textit{On the electrodynamics of moving bodies}]. Annalen der Physik, 322(10):891–921, 1905.   \bibitem{knuthwebsite} Knuth: Computers and Typesetting, \\\texttt{\~{}uno/abcde.html}\end{thebibliography}   \end{document}

The command insert the number corresponding to the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the output of is [2].

The information printed by the command depends on the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles.

  Open an example in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Bibliography management with Bibtex

BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in LaTeX, with BibTeX the bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document.

Once the external bibliography file is imported, the command is used just as in the introductory example.

Ths document is an example of BibTeX using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}

This uses the following commands:

Imports the BibTeX file "sample.bib" to display the bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the braces, the file extension is not necessary.
Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher, and abstract, the style used might only print the title and the author. See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in LaTeX.
This will print a number of text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the label produces [2].

When the main document is compiled, a .bbl file is generated from the .bib file. This is simply a .tex file reorganising the information in the .bib file in a environment, as above. On ShareLaTeX the .bbl file is stored in the cache, and you can download it from the list of other logs and files.

Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools.

  Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]The bibliography file

Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of records and fields. Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry.

This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by:

This is the first line of a record entry, denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. Besides the entry types shown in the example (, and ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide.
The label is assigned to this entry, is an identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document.
This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields.

The information in this file can later be used within a LaTeX document to include these references, as shown in the next subsection.

  Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Adding the bibliography in the table of contents

There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended).

To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command or

for books and reports or

for articles. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example.

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \section{First Section} This document ...   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}   \end{document}

Adding the line

to the preamble will print the "References" or "Bibliography" in the table of contents, depending on the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Listings to the table of contents. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation].

  Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Reference guide

Standard entry types

Article from a magazine or journal
A published book
A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution
An article in a conference proceedings
A part of a book (section, chapter and so on)
A part of a book having its own title
An article in a conference proceedings
Technical documentation
A Master's thesis
Something that doesn't fit in any other type
A PhD thesis
The same as
Report published by an institution
Document not formally published, with author and title

Most common fields used in BibTeX

address annote author
booktitle chapter crossref
edition editor institution
journal key month
note number organization
pages publisher school
series title type
volume year URL
abstract keywords price
copyright language contents

[edit]Further reading

For more information see:

@article{einstein, author = "Albert Einstein", title = "{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. ({German}) [{On} the electrodynamics of moving bodies]", journal = "Annalen der Physik", volume = "322", number = "10", pages = "891--921", year = "1905", DOI = "" }   @book{latexcompanion, author = "Michel Goossens and Frank Mittelbach and Alexander Samarin", title = "The \LaTeX\ Companion", year = "1993", publisher = "Addison-Wesley", address = "Reading, Massachusetts" }   @misc{knuthwebsite, author = "Donald Knuth", title = "Knuth: Computers and Typesetting", url = "\~{}uno/abcde.html" }

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The following is a list of works about Paris, France:

List of books, arranged by author[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(June 2015)

In English
  • Edwards, Henry Sutherland. Old and new Paris: its history, its people, and its places (2 vol 1894) online
  • Fierro, Alfred. Historical Dictionary of Paris (1998) 392pp, an abridged translation of his Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris (1996), 1580pp
  • Horne, Alistair. Seven Ages of Paris (2002), emphasis on ruling elites excerpt and text search
  • Jones, Colin. Paris: Biography of a City (2004), 592pp; comprehensive history by a leading British scholar excerpt and text search
  • Lawrence, Rachel; Gondrand, Fabienne (2010). Paris (City Guide) (12th ed.). London: Insight Guides. ISBN 9789812820792.
  • Sutcliffe, Anthony. Paris: An Architectural History (1996) excerpt and text search
In French
  • Brunet, Jean-Paul (1999). Police contre FLN, le drame d'octobre 1961 (in French). Flammarion. ISBN 978-2080676917. 
  • Combeau, Yvan (2013). Histoire de Paris (in French). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-060852-3. 
  • De Moncan, Patrice (2007). Les jardins du Baron Haussmann (in French). Paris: Les Éditions du Mécène. ISBN 978-2-907970-914. 
  • De Moncan, Patrice (2012). Le Paris d'Haussmann (in French). Paris: Les Editions du Mecene. ISBN 978-2-9079-70983. 
  • Dictionnaire Historique de Paris (in French). Le Livre de Poche. 2013. ISBN 978-2-253-13140-3. 
  • du Camp, Maxime (1993). Paris – see organs, see functions, et sa vie (in French). Monaco: Rondeau. 
  • Einaudi, Jean-Luc (2001). La Bataille de Paris: 17 octobre 1961 (in French). Fayard. ISBN 2-213-61019-3. 
  • Fierro, Alfred (1996). Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris (in French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 2-221-07862-4. 
  • Héron de Villefosse, René (1959). HIstoire de Paris (in French). Bernard Grasset. 
  • Jarrassé, Dominique (2007). Grammaire des jardins Parisiens. Parigramme. ISBN 978-2-84096-476-6. 
  • Maneglier, Hervé (1990). Paris Impérial- La vie quotidienne sous le Second Empire (in French). Paris: Armand Colin. ISBN 2-200-37226-4. 
  • Meunier, Florian (2014). Le Paris du moyen âge (in French). Paris: Editions Ouest-France. ISBN 978-2-7373-6217-0. 
  • Rougerie, Jacques (2014). La Commune de 1871. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-062078-5. 
  • Sarmant, Thierry (2012). Histoire de Paris: Politique, urbanisme, civilisation (in French). Editions Jean-Paul Gisserot. ISBN 978-2-755-803303. 
  • Schmidt, Joel (2009). Lutece- Paris, des origines a Clovis (in French). Perrin. ISBN 978-2-262-03015-5. 

List of works, arranged chronologically[edit]

Published in the 17th–18th centuries[edit]

  • "Paris", Topographia Galliae (in German), 1, Frankfurt: Caspar Merian, 1655 
  • Joachim Christoph Nemeitz (1718). Séjour de Paris (in German). Frankfurt: Förster. 
  • Thomas Nugent (1749), "Paris", The Grand Tour, 4: France, London: S. Birt 
  • Richard Brookes (1786), "Paris", The General Gazetteer (6th ed.), London: J.F.C. Rivington 
In French
  • Nicolas de Blégny (1692). Le Livre commode des Adresses de Paris (in French).  (see Nicolas de Blégny for information about this author)
  • Germain Brice (1706), Description nouvelle de la vile de Paris (in French) (5th ed.), Paris: N. Le Gras 
  • Louis Liger (1715). Le voyageur fidèle, ou Le guide des étrangers dans la ville de Paris (in French). Paris: P. Ribou. 
  • Les Curiositez de Paris, de Versailles, de Marly, de Vincennes, de Saint Cloud, et des environs (in French). Claude-Marin Saugrain. 1742. 
  • Les Spectacles de Paris (in French), 1751–1797  (theatre almanac)
  • Hébert (1761–1773). Almanach Parisien (in French). 
  • Hébert (1766). Dictionnaire Pittoresque et Historique de Paris (in French). Paris: Claude Herissant. v.2
  • François Parfaict; Claude Parfaict (1767). Dictionnaire des théâtres de Paris (in French). Paris: Rozet. 
  • Pierre-Thomas-Nicolas Hurtaut (1779). Dictionnaire Historique de la Ville de Paris [Historical Dictionary of the City of Paris] (in French). 
  • Louis-Sébastien Mercier (1781–1788). Tableau de Paris (in French).  (12 volumes)

Published in the 19th century[edit]

  • Francis William Blagdon (1803). Paris as it was and as it is. London: C.and R. Baldwin. 
  • Abraham Rees (1819), "Paris", The Cyclopaedia, London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown 
  • Jedidiah Morse; Richard C. Morse (1823), "Paris", A New Universal Gazetteer (4th ed.), New Haven: S. Converse 
  • "Paris", Cabinet Cyclopædia, Cities and Principal Towns of the World, London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, & Green, 1830, OCLC 2665202 
  • David Brewster, ed. (1832). "Paris". Edinburgh Encyclopædia. Philadelphia: Joseph and Edward Parker. 
  • History of Paris from the Earliest Period to the Present Day (2nd ed.). Paris: A. and W. Galignani. 1832. 
  • Mariana Starke (1839), "Paris", Travels in Europe (9th ed.), Paris: A. and W. Galignani 
  • Sinnett's Picture of Paris, London: Joseph Masters, 1845 
  • John Thomson (1845), "Paris", New Universal Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary, London: H.G. Bohn 
  • Francis Coghlan (1853), Miniature Guide to Paris and its Environs, London: J. Onwhyn 
  • Charles Knight, ed. (1866). "Paris". English Cyclopaedia. 4, "Geography". London: Bradbury, Evans, & Co. 
  • Adolphe Joanne (1867). Diamond Guide for the Stranger in Paris. Paris: Hachette. 
  • Arthur Mingeaud (1871), Condensed History of Paris, Quebec: Printed at "Morning Chronicle" Office 
  • Handbook for Visitors to Paris, London: John Murray, 1879 
  • Bradshaw's Illustrated Guide through Paris and its Environs, London: W.J. Adams and Sons, 1880, OCLC 19043482 
  • Cassell's Illustrated Guide to Paris. London: Cassell & Co. 1884. 
  • Albert Shaw (1891), "Paris, the Typical Modern City", The Century Magazine, New York, 42 
  • Archibald Wilberforce, ed. (1893). "Paris". Capitals of the Globe. NY: Peter Fenelon Collier. 
  • Norddeutscher Lloyd (1896), "Paris", Guide through Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Holland and England, Berlin: J. Reichmann & Cantor, OCLC 8395555 
In French

Published in the 20th century[edit]

  • Frederic Harrison (1900). "Paris as an Historic City". The Meaning of History. Macmillan and Company. 
  • Katharine S. MacQuoid; Gilbert S. MacQuoid (1900), In Paris, Boston: L.C. Page & Company 
  • "Paris", Chambers's Encyclopaedia, London: W. & R. Chambers, 1901 
  • Elizabeth Otis Williams (1907), Sojourning, shopping & studying in Paris; a handbook particularly for women, Chicago, A. C. McClurg & co.  + Bibliography
  • Nathaniel Newnham Davis (1911), "Paris", The Gourmet's Guide to Europe (3rd ed.), London: Grant Richards 
  • Mabell S.C. Smith (1913), Twenty Centuries of Paris, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, OCLC 2619740 
  • Handbook to Paris and its Environs (11th ed.), London: Ward, Lock and Co., 1921 
  • Walter Benjamin (1982). Das Passagen-Werk [Arcades Project] (in German). ISBN 3518112007. 
  • Donald Olsen (1986). The City as a Work of Art: London, Paris, Vienna. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300042122. 
  • Flanner, Janet. Paris Was Yesterday, 1925-1939 (1988); Primary source; her “Letter from Paris,” in New Yorker magazine
  • François Loyer, Paris, Nineteenth Century: Architecture and Urbanism, trans. Charles Lynn Clark (New York, 1988)
  • Vincent Cronin (1989). Paris on the Eve, 1900-1914. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-312-04876-9. 
  • Wiser, William. The Crazy Years: Paris in the Twenties (1990); focus on artists & celebrities, especially expatriates
  • Annick Pardailhe-Galabrun, The Birth of Intimacy: Privacy and Domestic Life in Early Modern Paris, trans. Jocelyn Phelps (Cambridge, 1991).
  • Christopher Prendergast, Writing the City: Paris and the Nineteenth Century (Oxford, 1992),
  • Bernier, Olivier. Fireworks at Dusk: Paris in the Thirties (1993); social, artistic, and political life
  • Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson. Paris as Revolution: Writing the Nineteenth-Century City (Berkeley, 1994)
  • Vincent Cronin (1994). Paris:City of Light, 1919-1939. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-215191-X. 
  • Jean Favier (1997-04-23). Paris (in French). Fayard. ISBN 2-213-59874-6. 
  • Historical Dictionary of Paris. Landham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1998.
  • Sharon Marcus, Apartment Stories: City and Home in Nineteenth-Century Paris and London (Berkeley, 1999)

Published in the 21st century[edit]

  • Wiser, William. The twilight years: Paris in the 1930s (Robson Books, 2000); Focus on artists & celebrities, especially expatriates
  • Harvey, David. Paris, Capital of Modernity (Routledge, 2003)
  • D.C. Woodcox (2003). "Paris". In Jennifer Speake. Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 920–924. ISBN 978-1-57958-424-5. 
  • Colin Jones (2004). Paris: The Biography of a City. New York: Penguin Viking. ISBN 0-670-03393-6. 
  • David Levinson, ed. (2004). "Paris". Encyclopedia of Homelessness. Sage Publications. pp. 441–445. ISBN 978-0-7619-2751-8. 
  • Simone Roux (2009). Paris in the Middle Ages. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-4159-2. 
  • Rosemary Wakeman (2009). The Heroic City: Paris, 1945-1958. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-87023-6. online review
  • Mitchell, Allan. Nazi Paris: The History of an Occupation, 1940-1944 (2010)
  • Rearick, Charles. Paris Dreams, Paris Memories: The City and Its Mystique (Stanford University Press, 2011). 296 pp. online review
  • Graham Robb (2011). Parisians: An Adventure History of Paris. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-07928-9. 
  • Winter, Jay and Jean-Louis Robert, eds. Capital Cities at War: Volume 2, A Cultural History: Paris, London, Berlin 1914-1919 (2 vol 2012)
  • Charles Emmerson (2013). "Paris". 1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War. Public Affairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-257-0. 


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(June 2015)

See also[edit]

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