Dissertation Sur Auguste Comtes Contribution


Sommaire de l'article

Science et philosophie de l’Humanité

Comte est le fondateur du positivisme, doctrine selon laquelle l’esprit humain ne peut atteindre l’essence des choses et doit renoncer à l’absolu : cette conception a eu une influence majeure jusqu’à notre époque. On appelle aussi scientisme cette philosophie qui fait primer les limites de la raison sur la métaphysique : l’homme doit se borner à ce qu’il peut savoir de manière certaine, grâce à la science. Le scientisme repose en fait grandement sur la philosophie critique de Kant, qui refuse à l’homme toute prétention métaphysique.

Comte, le positivisme et la loi des trois états :

Aux yeux d’Auguste Comte, la connaissance ne saurait dépasser la sphère des lois scientifiques. Aussi la philosophie positive, expression par laquelle Comte désigne sa conception, se définit-elle comme une discipline ayant pour objet la coordination des faits observés, sans nulle prétention à aller au-delà des acquisitions de la science expérimentale.

–          Toute investigation portant sur l’essence du réel se trouve ainsi exclue du champ de recherche.

–          Cette philosophie positive d’Auguste Comte porte aussi le nom de positivisme, terme aujourd’hui répandu dans la langue courante, mais qui, chez Auguste Comte, désigne stricto sensu, la conception selon laquelle l’esprit humain ne saurait atteindre le fond des choses et doit se borner à la seule recherche des lois de la nature, conçues comme des relation s invariables de succession et de similitude.

Le positivisme repose lui-même sur la loi des trois états :

–          L’esprit humain passe d’abord, selon Auguste Comte, par l’état théologique, mode d’explication par des agents détenant une volonté (ex : Zeus exercerait des interventions rendant compte des anomalies apparentes de l’univers)

–         puis par l’état métaphysique, croyance en des entités ou des abstractions (la vertu dormitive de l’opium, par exemple)

–         l’état positif, caractérisé par l’abandon du « pourquoi » et le seul attachement au « comment », à la recherche des lois effectives gouvernant les phénomènes.

Ce terme de positif désigne ainsi, chez Auguste Comte, ce qui est utile, réel et palpable, par opposition à ce qui est fictif, chimérique ou imaginaire.

Telle est la « loi des trois états », conçue comme la grande loi permettant d’unifier l’évolution de l’humanité. Cette loi, qui concerne l’espèce humaine, dans sa démarche vers le stade positif, apparaît également vraie dans le développement de chaque individu : si l’enfant croit aux agents surnaturels, l’adolescent est métaphysicien et l’adulte accède enfin à la positivité.

Comte et la religion de l’humanité :

L’esprit positif s’attache aux lois de la nature, mais aussi aux phénomènes de liaison sociale. Aux yeux d’Auguste Comte, en effet, l’idée d’individu isolé est une abstraction et la philosophie positive doit exprimer la solidarité sociale.

–          C’est d’ailleurs la sociologie, l’étude des faits sociaux, qui couronne d’édifice des sciences.

–          Auguste Comte est le créateur de ce terme de sociologie, composé du latin socius, associé, et de logos, mot grec qui signifie étude.

–          Ainsi, la sociologie, étude positive de l’ensemble des lois fondamentales propres aux phénomènes sociaux, couronne les disciplines qui ont atteint la positivité, à savoir les mathématiques, l’astronomie, la physique, la chimie et la biologie : elle est la clef de voûte du système Comte.

En résumé, le souci de Comte fut d’achever les conquêtes de l’esprit positif. Ce qui ne l’empêchera nullement d’élaborer un « positivisme religieux », une religion de l’humanité, considérée comme ce grand-être social qui nous dépasse infiniment : selon la formule célèbre, l’Humanité se compose de plus de morts que de vivants.

Oeuvres d’Auguste Comte :

– Le Cours de philosophie positive (1830-1842)

– Le Discours sur l’esprit positif (1844)

– Le Système de politique positive (1851-1854)

 

The Contribution of Auguste Comte to Sociology – Theological, Metaphysical and Scientific stage

Auguste Comte was a French philosopher born on 19th January 1978 and died on 5th September 1857. His birthplace was Montpellier, France. He is known as “the father of ‘Sociology” as he was the first one to realize the importance of relating sociology with science. He has made huge contributions to the subject along with which he coined sociology as ‘the science of society’ or ‘the science of human behavior’.

He called the new subject invented by him as “Social physics” and later explained that Sociology is a combination of Latin and Greek words that describe the new sciences. He divided the subject into two major parts. The first part was the ‘social statics’ which dealt with the forces that hold the society together. The second part was the ‘social dynamics’ which dealt with the forces that drive the social change.

He developed his major work, “Positive Philosophy”, while he was hospitalized for the course of 15 years. This work of his contained six volumes which explained that society has its own set of laws under which it is operated, similar to the physical world. His philosophy is elucidated in another important work “A Programme of Scientific Work required for the Reorganization of Society” which he published in 1822. In 1844, Comte was in love and maintained a platonic relationship with Clotilde de Vaux who was a French aristocrat and writer. He made another contribution to the subject after his beloved’s demise in 1846 which was known as “System of Positive Polity”. In his another contribution, the “Religion of Humanity”, he let out the idea of an improved religious order that emphasized more on reason and humanity.

Since the birth, the life of Auguste Comte has been quite difficult as he was born during the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Both of these revolutions lead to the division of society in his country in two major parts. First part belonged to the revolutionary thinkers while the other part comprised of the religious thinkers. The clash of opinions and the differences in the thoughts lead to the birth of violent activities and conflicts which increased exponentially. All the pre-existing thoughts and beliefs about the society were smashed brutally in the ongoing disputes. Auguste Comte devoted a great part of his life in solving these disputes and came up with an idea of his own which supported the scientific aspects of society. Totally neglecting the revolutionary and religious ideas, he invented his own philosophy for a new society amidst the whole turmoil. He organized the pre-existing social order and gave it a new scientific outlook and analyzed everything scientifically. The contribution of the Father of Sociology during this period is of immense importance, as it had a noticeable effect in the progressing revolutions.

 

According to Comte, the knowledge of a human has three branches. The understanding and thinking of a human go through three different stages. It was his theory of human thinking evolution and development. This theory was called The law of three stages which is also considered a major contribution in this field. The stages depict the transformation of the human mind in accordance with the transformation of the society and era. The three stages consisted of:

  1. Theological or fictitious stage: This was the first of the three stages that explained the world before 1300 A.D. This stage was characterized by the orthodox ideas that everything is controlled by a supernatural power. In the primitive time, it was believed that the social and physical society is created by God. For instance, the lack or excess of rain referred to the displeasing nature of God. The first law was further divided into 3 major stages:
  • Fetishism: At this stage, primitive men believed that God resides in each and every object. Hence, they used to worship non-living things like stones, rocks, wood, etc.
  • Polytheism: This stage is advanced Fetishism. It is a stage that defined that the number of Gods increased with the number of objects. For example, God of water, God of soil, etc.
  • Monotheism: This is the most advanced stage of the first law which states that there is only one God.
  1. Metaphysical or Abstract Stage: This stage characterized the world between 1300 and 1800 A.D. It was the modification of the Theological stage. People started thinking rationally and replaced imagination with reason. This stage knocked out the concept of concrete God and emphasized on abstract principles.
  2. Positive or Scientific Stage: This stage was characterized by the growth of Science and marked the era following 1800 A.D. People gave up their beliefs about God and initiated researching over the wide field of science. They started believing more on statistics and factual data and converted their perception to look at the world from imaginative to intellectual.

These are some of the major contributions of Auguste Compte in the field of Sociology.  A French sociologist, Raymond Aron, wrote: “Auguste Comte may be considered as the first and foremost sociologist of human and social unity.” From his birth to his death, Comte devoted his life to Sociology, and hence he very well-deserved the title of  ‘Father of Sociology’ ”.

0 Thoughts to “Dissertation Sur Auguste Comtes Contribution

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *